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Test 3 Lecture Notes

141 Lecture Test 3 Notes

QuestionAnswer
study of tissues histology
study of cells cytology
group of cells similar in structure and function tissues
name the 4 types of tissues epithelium, connective, muscle and nerve tissues
cell division resulting in germ cells meiosis
spermatozoan and oocyte gametes
gametes are _________? haploid
has half the number of chromosomes or only 1 set haploid
the gamets from which parent do the organelles for the embryo come from? mother
who gives embryo their mitochondrial DNA? mother
cell division for all other cells mitosis
2 full sets of chromosomes (one from mom and one from dad) diploid
fertilized egg "pre-embryonic" stage for 1st 2 weeks zygote
glycoprotein "shell" surrounding the egg (oocyte) zona pellucida
the human embryo must "hatch" from the _________ to implant in the uterus. zona
a solid ball of cells morula
type of cell division that produces spermatozoa or oocytes meiosis
in a blastocyte, the outer most cells GIVE RISE to? placenta
in a blastocyte, the outer most cells are known as? trophoblasts
a glycoprotein "shell" that surrounds the early mammalian embryo is known as? zona pellucida
for the oocyte, the outer glycoprotein "shell" is known as? zona pellucida
a fertilized oocyte is known as the? zygote
a condition in which a cell contains half the number of chromosomes as compared to somatic cells? haploid
type of nuclear division in which the daughter cells have the same number and type of chromosomes as the parent cell mitosis
once the oocyte is fertilized, what is the predominant form of cell division mitosis
a type of cell division that produces regular diploid cells known as somatic cells? mitosis
the gametes from which parent contributes the mitochondria and mitochondrial DNA mother
for an embryo, the solid ball of cells (approx. 16 cells for humans) is known as? morula
how many cells are in a human embryo at the morula stage? 16 cells
appox. how old is a human embryo when it becomes a solid ball of cells? 3 days
for an embryo, a hollow ball of cells is known as? blastula
approx. how old is a human embryo when it becomes a hollow ball of cells? 5 days
a term that indicates the ability of a cell to give rise to an entire organism totipotent
a term that indicates the ability of a cell to give rise to many structures however, NOT the entire organism multipotent
a condition in which a cell contains 2 full sets of chromosomes, one from mom and one from dad diploid
maternal dietary deficiencies in which compound increases the risk of spina bifida in the baby folic acid or folate
elevated plasma levels of this protein may indicate NTD's alpha fetoprotein (alpha fetal protein)
a term that means tissue death due to loss of blood flow is? ischemic necrosis
a term that means loss of blood flow is? ischemia
a term that means "tissue-death" is? necrosis
a term that indicates a reduction in size atrophy
a term that means an increase in size without an increase in the number of cells hypertrophy
a term that describes an increase in the number of cells (due to increased cell division) hyperplasia
smoking often changes the normal epithelium of the bronchi into which epithelial types stratified squamous epithelial tissue
what is the normal epithelium tissue found in the bronchi? pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelial tissue
the process by which the epithelium of the bronchi change from the normal pseudostratified ciliated columnar to stratified squamous is known as? metaplasia
what type of tissue comprises the epithelium of the vagina after puberty stratified squamous epithelium
what type of tissue comprises the epithelium of the vagina before puberty simple cuboidal epithelium
the process by which the pediatric vaginal epithelium changes from simple cuboidal to stratified squamous epithelium after puberty is called metaplasia
a process by which one adult cell type changes to another adult cell type metaplasia
the development of specialized function in non-specialized cells? differentiation
a structure in which capillaries infiltrate a wound site to replace a clot granulation tissue
the bodys response to cellular and tissue damage in which capillaries are dilated with accompanying swelling inflammation
the replacement of damaged tissue with normal tissue is a process known as? regeneration
which of the germ layers gives rise to the anterior pituitary gland endoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to most of the glands endoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the lungs endoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the liver, pancreas, etc? endoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the lining of the GI tract endoderm
a term that refers to embryonic connective tissue is? mesenchyme
which of the germ layers gives rise to mesenchyme mesoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the connective tissue mesoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the gonads mesoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the cortex of the adrenal gland mesoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the dermis of the skin mesoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the bones mesoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the muscles mesoderm
an anterior neural tube closer defect in which the cerebrum (brain) fails to develop resulting in the skull and the absence of most or all of the cerebral cortex anencephaly
a posterior neural tube closure defect that may cause damage and may be indicated by a tuft of hair growing on the lower lumbar/sacral skin over the spinal cord is known as? spina bifida occulta
a posterior neural tube closure defect in which the dura mater (NOT the spinal cord) is forced out of its normal position often resulting in a very large fluid filled sac on the babys spine meningocele
a posterior neural tube closure defect in which the dura mater as well as the spinal cord are forced out of their normal position resulting in a very large fluid-filled sac on the babys spine is known as myelomeningocele
which of the germ layers gives rise to the posterior pituitary gland ectoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the medulla of the adrenal gland ectoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the epidermis of the skin ectoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the sensory tissues ectoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the central nervous system ectoderm
which of the germ layers gives rise to the brain and spinal cord ectoderm
approx. how old is the human embryo when it implants into the walls of the uterus 6 days
at what stage of the embryonic development is the human embryo when it implants into the uterine wall blastocyst
at what stage of embryonic development do the 3 germ layers develop embryonic disc
in the blastocyst, what does the inner cell mass give rise to embryo or embryo proper
in the blastocyst, the structure that gives rise to the embryo proper is the? inner cell mass
in the blastocyst, what structure gives rise to the placenta trophoblasts
malignant melanoma may be suspected if THESE suddenly change: shape, color or texture moles
a benign vascular proliferation, a rather aggressive form of this disease is often seen with AIDs patients kaposi sarcoma
a cancer originating from melanocytes in moles, this highly metastatic cancer can be lethal if untreated or treated too late malignant melanoma
a type of carcinoma that originates from keratinocytes in stratum spinosum squamous cell
squamous cell carcinoma is especially seen in areas exposed to? sun-light
a type of carcinoma that originates from the stratum basale basal cell
causes venereal warts human papilloma virus
the most frequent skin carcinoma, usually cured with surgery basal cell
basal cell carcinoma is especially seen in areas exposed to _________________? sunlight
these skin growths are caused by viruses and are usually self limiting and regress spontaneously warts
this compound is released by certain cells to cause hives histamine
which type of cells release the compound that causes hives mast cells
another term for hives or wheals urticaria
patchy loss of pigment (loss of melanocytes in affected areas)? vitiligo
common, self limiting viral disease caused by a poxvirus which produces lesions less that 4mm in length molluscum contagiosum
staphlococcal (bacteria) infection especially seen in children.. causing a wet, purulent (with pus) growing scab impetigo
acute inflammatory reaction of the skin caused by allergies, infections, drugs. May have red, oozing, crusted lesions eczema
chronic skin condition caused by increased mitosis, increased keratin and silvery scales that may bleed if scraped off psoriasis
a condition similar to heat exhaustion, however, the pt is unable to sweat allowing body temp to rise to potentially fatal levels heat stroke
a condition that causes weakness, dizziness, headache, reduced bp and sweating due to overheating heat exhaustion
a term that indicates tissue death is? necrosis
necrotic lesions in the dermis caused by blockage of blood flow. seen in bed-ridden pts decubitus ulcers
this type of burn reaches the hypodermis third degree
this type of burn reaches the dermis second degree
another name for thinning of the hair or baldness is? alopecia
what type of burn involves only the epidermis first degree
a condition in which excessive hair growth is observed in areas not usually hairy in women and children hirsutism
smooth muscle that attaches to the hair sheath which causes goose bumps piloerector
dark, course hair found on the scapl, eyelashes, axilla and pubic regions is known as? terminal
a type of very fine hair found on babies and women vellus
a term that indicates the loss of blood flow ischemia
a type of very fine hair found on the fetus lanugo
another name for hair is? pili or pilus
the oil produced by the oil glands of the skin is known as? sebum
the oil glands of the skin are known as? sebaceous glands
glands that produce milk for babies are known as? mammary glands
the wax produced by the wax-producing glands of the external auditory canal is known as? cerumen
the wax-producing glands of the external auditory canal ceruminous
specialized sweat glands in the axillae and groin are known as ________ glands apocrine
pronounced, visible sweating as seen in various diseases is referred to as? diaphoresis
another name for merocrine eccrine
a type of sweat gland that produces a watery sweat for evaporative cooling merocrine
the most numerous glands in the skin are? merocrine
another name for sweat glands is? sudoriferous
which layer contains the subcutaneous fat hypodermis
which layer just deep to the skin hypodermis
found in the dermis and other locations, these receptors are for deep pressure, stretching of the skin and joint movement ruffini corpuscles
which of the following are "touch" receptors usually located deep in the dermis pacinlan corpuscles
which of the following are "light" touch receptors usually located at the epidermal/dermal junction of the skin merkel cells/discs
Created by: eacirillo