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Ch 26

Exam 2: Recombinant DNA and Biotechnology

the production of identical copies through some asexual means cloning
examples of clones bacteria in a colony all come from the same original cell and therefore are clones; human identical twins
sections of DNA that express a characteristic genes
the production of many identical copies of the same gene gene cloning
DNA put together from 2 or more different sources recombinant
(restriction endonucleases) produced by cells to _____ any _____ in order to protect the organism chew up any foreign DNA
(restriction endonucleases) many recognize and _____ specific sequences cut at
(restriction endonucleases) most do not cut the double strand _____, they... evenly; leave ends that overhang by 4 to 8 bases (sticky ends)
2 DNA fragments that have been cut with the same enzyme can be... stuck together
an enzyme called _____ can repair the break in the backbone joining them permanently DNA ligase
many organisms in addition to their main chromosomes have small, circular bits of DNA called _____ plasmids
plasmids usually only carry only a few _____ genes
plasmids replicate _____ of the main chromosomes independently
cells can have from _____ to ______ copies of plasmids one to several thousand
plasmids can be used to produce _____ in bacteria or yeast (cloning) foreign DNA
recombinant DNA technology: cut target DNA with ... restriction endonuclease
recombinant DNA technology: cut plasmid DNA with... the same endonuclease
bond complementary sticky ends anneal
attach permanently ligate
transfer the recombinant plasmid into... an E. coli or yeast
E. coli prokaryote
yeast eukaryote
as the E. coli or yeast reproduce, it produces... more genes or more of a product like insulin
PCR Polymerase Chain Reaction
PCR: creates copies of DNA _____ in a test tube very quickly
PCR: makes lots of copies of... which can be less than one part per million of the total DNA sample targeted sequence of DNA
PCR: uses _____ (the enzyme that carries out DNA replication) to cause a chain reaction that continues until the process is stopped DNA polymerase
(analyzing DNA segments) 1st PCR is used to _____ the amount of DNA that we are interested in increase
(analyzing DNA segments) then the DNA is treated with _____ restricted endonucleases (this creates a unique collection of different-sized fragments)
(analyzing DNA segments) the DNA is then placed into a process called _____ gel electrophorosis
(gel electrophorosis) a gel of _____ with wells in the top is poured agarose
(gel electrophorosis) DNA that has been cut with _____ is placed into the wells endonucleases
(gel electrophorosis) an electric current is run across the gel with the _____ charge at the bottom positive
(gel electrophorosis)the negatively charged DNA fragments move toward the _____ charge positive
(gel electrophorosis) smaller fragments move _____; larger fragments move _____ (small) faster; (large) more slowly
(gel electrophorosis) the sample forms a _____ of DNA fragments of increasing size "ladder"
DNA is collected at... the crime scene and from crime suspects
DNA is exposed to _____ and put into _____ restriction enzymes; gel electrophoresis
different people have... different sequences of DNA
different sequences means different... "ladders" will show up in the electrophoresis
if a suspect's DNA "ladder" matches the crime scene DNA ladder, then... the 2 DNA samples come from the same person
Created by: chelsea_2010