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Ch. 26/27 Potter/Perry

How does body alignment improve body mechanics reduces strain, maintains muscle tone, contributes to balance
How do you achieve body balance? have center of gravity, widen base, bend knees
How do you reduce friction to help with body mechanics? lift, not push when moving pxt in bed
Tendons cartilage joints ligaments connect muscle to bone connective tissue, shock absorber b/n bones, mobility joins bones
What is the origin of a muscle? What is insertion point? point of attachment moves when muscle contracts
What do synergistic muscles do? maintain posture, initiate mvmt.
What are antigravity muscles? joint stabilization ex: extensors of leg, butt
What are antagonistic muscles? bring about mvmt of joint ex: extension of arm, triceps contract
What is proprioception? awareness of position of body and found on nerve endings
Which part of the brain controls balance? cerebellum and inner ear
What controls voluntary motor function? motorstrip in cerebral cortex
What is example of congenital defect? scoliosis, osteogenesis
Name disorders of joint and muscles osteoporosis, arthritis
What is osteogenesis imperfecta? inherited and affects bones that are porous,short,bowed,deformed
What is included in assessment of body alignment? observe standing, sitting, recumbent or straight vertebrae
Assessing mobility ROJM,gait,excercise
Guidelines for fitness program assess fitness level, design program, assemble equip., get started, monitor progress
How to lift properly tighten stomach muscles, bend at knees, keep weight close to body, avoid twisting, center of gravity
How often should you reposition pxt in bed? in chair? Q2h Q 20-30 min
Fowler's/semi-fowler's cardiace/resp probs elevate bed 45 to 60 degrees
What does 30 deg. lateral help avoid? pressure ulcers
what is active ROM? Passive? pxt moves self, nurse moves pxt
If body is in plantar flexion, and spine is hyperextended, what is compromised? lung expansion
When is quad cane used? partial or complete paralysis or some hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of body)
Two types of crutches double adjustable Lofstrand or forearm crutch, axillary
What is proper length of crutch? 3-4 finger widths from axilla to a point 6 inches to heel
Four standard gaits for crutches 4 point alternating gait, 3 point, 2 point, swing through
How much weight does each gait bear? 4 pt TWB on both legs 3 pt TWB on 1 ft 2 pt PWB on ea foot
What maintains a safe environment? sanitation maintained, home safe, basic needs, reduce transmission of pathogens, pollution controlled
What are our basic needs? O2, nutrition, sleep, water
what are Maslow's hierarchy of needs? Low - High physiological, safety, love/belonging, self esteem, self actualization
what are top 3 hazards for child ingestion? cleaning products, personal care products, medications
what is a comfortable temp? 18.3C - 23.8C (65-75F)
What factors affect safety? inadequate lighting, barriers, no safety devices, poison, home fires, natural disasters, bioterrorist attack, pathogens
What does R.A.C.E. Rescue pxt, Activate alarm, Contain fire, Evacuate
What is P.A.S.S. Pull pin, Aim low, Squeeze, Sweep
What is the ABC's of fire extenguishers? A-combustibles B-liquids C-electrical
What should a water heater be set at? 120F or less
Who is at greatest hazard risk? toddler, pre-school, school age
What is leading cause of death among 45-54 yrs? drug related
what is leading cause of death among native americans? alcohol
What is the poison control number? 1-800-222-1222
How are pathogens spread? bad hand hygiene, insects/parasites, bad human waste disposal, lack of immunizations, biohazard waste
What musculoskeletal changes show in older adults strenth decr., joints less mobile, brittle bones, ROM limited
older adult nervous system changes voluntary/autonomic reflexes slow, decr ability to respond to mult. stimuli, decr touch sensitivity
Sensory changes in older adults decr peripheral vision, decr nigh vision, cataracts, hearing impaired
what are client centered accidents? suicide, cutting, seizure (paroxysmal, episodic) tonicity-rigid, clonicity-jerking
Procedure related accidents med. errors, devices like IV
Equipment related accidents IV Machine, electrical malfunction
What is SPLATT S-symptoms of time of fall P-previous fall L-locations of fall A-activity at time of fall T-time of fall T-trauma post fall
Types of restaints physical and chemical
How often should you check on person in retraints? Q2h, do not put up all bed rails
Never induce vomiting if pxt ingests cleaners, hair care products, grease petroleum products, furniture polish, paint thinner, kerosene
physician evaluate pxt within 1-4 hours after initiation of restraint
After ____ hrs, physician must see and assess pxt in restraints 24
Created by: palmerag