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Chapter 4,5,6.

Healthy Human Body

Digestion: Role of salivary contains amylase enzymes which start breaking down amylose and amylopectin
Monosaccharides are building blocks of carbohydrates, are single 5 sided structures, examples: glucose, fructose, galactose
Key functions of Carbohydrates are found primarily in plant-based foods and are key source of energy for body
Where do Carbohydrates come from? Plants are the primary producers because they go through photosynthesis
Disaccharides are Formed from two monosaccharides, example-Maltose, Sucrose, Lactose
Polysaccharides are chains of simple sugars, it is starch, fiber, and glycogen, complex carbohydrates, consists of amylose and amylopectin
Starch is the storage form in plants, it's structure is a long chain with no branching
Amylose straight chains of glucose units
Amylopectin branched chains of glucose units
Pancreatic amylase Any of a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of starch to sugar to produce carbohydrate derivatives.
What form of carbohydrates are absorbed? Monosaccharides
Importance of glycogen serves as the storage form of glucose that is not immediately needed by the body.
Glycemic index (GI) ranks foods' effects on blood glucose compared with equal amount of pure glucose
Glycemic Load (GL) adjusts GI to take into account the amount of carbohydrates consumed
Triglycerides three fatty acids connected to glycerol "backbone"
Saturated Fat all carbons bonded to hydrogen
Unsaturated fat one or more double bond between carbons (less saturated with hydrogen)
Trans fat are synthetically produced, unnatural fats
When a meal is consumed the blood glucose levels are high
when blood glucose levels are high.... hormone is produced from the ..... insulin, pancreas
When blood glucose levels are low....hormone is produced from the ..... glucagon, pancreas
...is the storage molecule for glucose. It is made in the.... and .... glycogen, liver, muscle
in response to insulin the liver.....glycogen stores (or makes)
In response to glucagon the liver.....glycogen breaks down
the overall effect of insulin is to ....blood sugar levels lower
the overall effect of glucagon is to....blood sugar levels raise
The......tells you how much a specific carbohydrate will affect your blood sugar glycemic index or glycemic load
the two organs important for regulating blood glucose are the...and the ... liver and pancreas
cells take up glucose from the blood when the....hormone is produced insulin
the ....is the organ responsible for regulating blood sugar levels pancreas (or liver)
if the body does not produce insulin then the blood sugar levels will always be high
normal blood glucose levels should be between...and...mg/dl 70-99
Foods with a high glycemic index elicit a ... release of insulin high (or fast or large)
the simple sugars are made of two categories or carbs, the ....and .... monosaccharides and polysaccharides
three types of monosaccharides are ..... glucose,fructose, and galactose
the disaccharide sucrose if made of glucose & fructose
two major types of starch are amylose and amylopectin
starch is the major glucose storage molecule in...., while ... is the major glucose storage in animals plants , glycogen
the enzyme that digests starch in the mounth is called.... salivary amylase
the enzyme that digests it in the pancreas is called pancreatic amylase
....and .... must be transported to the...to be converted into glucose before the body can use them for energy fructose, galactose, liver
....is a polysaccharide that cannot be digested by the body.... cellulose (or fiber)
the recommended dietary allowance for carbohydrates are...g/day for adults 130
The adequate intake of fiber for women is ... and for men it is .... 25 g/day...38 g/day
Polysaccharides cannot be absorbed in the small intestine, they must be digested to ...in order to be absorbed monosaccharides
Digestion of starch does not occur in the stomach because or its....environment acidic
Phospholipids have glycerol backbone but two fatty acids and a phosphorus group
Sgerols are comprised mainly of four connecting rings or carbon and hydrogen
Chylomicrons carry digested fat through lymph into bloodstream
Very Low-Density lipoproteins deliver fat made in liver to cells
Low density lipoproteins bad cholesterol deposit cholesterol on walls of arteries
high density lipoproteins remove cholesterol from body and deliver to liver for excreation
Atherosclerosis narrowing of arteries due to build up of plaque
Proteins are the predominant structural and functional materials in every cell
Denaturation the alteration (unfolding)of a protein's shape, which changes the structure and function of the protein
DNA in the cell nucleus contains instructions for protein synthesis
Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body and it is essential to obtain them from the diet
What are the building blocks of proteins? amino acids
What happens to the excess proteins in the body? the liver uses the proteins to make new proteins, glucose, or for other purposes and the rest are sent back to the blood stream to be used
Created by: carraig