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what is the nerve which intervates the latissumis dorsi? Thoracodorsal nerve
what is the blood supply to the the latissumis dorsi? thoracodorsal artery
where are the attachments of the latissimas dorsi? The broad fascia made by the supraspimous ligament and the thoracholumbar fascia, the iliac crest and the intertubercular sulcus
what is the lumbar triangle? made up of the latissimus dorsi, the iliac crest and the external abdominal oblique. This is a week point and many herniations can occur here.
what is the serratus posterior? is a thin and tendinous muscle which is just underneath the latissimus dorsi
what are the points of attachments of the serratus posterior? spinous process of T11-L2 and the last 3 or 4 ribs
what intercates the serratus posterior inferior the intercostal nerves T8-T11
what are the points of attachment of the external abdominal oblique? orginates from the lower ribs and inserts into the iliac crest.
what are the points of attachment of the Trapezius muscle? originates from the midline between the external occipital protuberance and spinous process of T12. It then attachs to the acromion.
what are the three fibers of the trapezis? superior, middle and inferior
superior fibers of the trapezius muscle elevate the scapula
middle fibers of the trapezius muscle retract the scapula
inferior fibers of the trapezius muscle depression of the scapula and the inferior rotation of the glenohumeral joint.
what is the nerve which intervates the trapezius? cranial nerve 11
what is the blood supply to the trapezius? superficial branch of the transverse cervical artery
levator scapulae points of attachment transverse process of C1-C4 and insert into the superiomedial border of the scapula.
What inervates the levator scapulae? dorsal scapular nerve (ventral rami of C3-C5)
Rhomboids major and minor points of attachment The minor originates from the nuchal ligament and the spinous processes of C7-T1 and the major originates from T2-T5. They both attach between the scapular spine and the inferior angle of the scapula.
what is the intervation of the Rhomboids major and minor dorsal scapular nerve (C5)
what is the blood supply of the Rhomboids major and minor dorsal scapular artery
serratus posterior superior points of attachment intercostal nerves (ventral rami of the spinal nerves T1-T4)
transversospinalis muscles semispinalis, multifidi and rotatores
do the transversospinalis muscles have proprioceptive sensory organs? Yes (muscle spindles)
what are teh levatores costarum intervated by? ventral rami
what is the function of the quadratus lumborum? to side bend the lower back.
neuroepithelial layer gives rise to all of the spinal neurons and some support cells. This is the inner most layer of the neural tube
mantle layer This is formed by neuroepithelial cells which have divided and differentiated into neuroblast cells. This is important for motor and sensory intervation for the alare and basal plates are found in the mantle.
alar plate posterior horn (sensory neurons)
basal plate anterior horn (motor neurons)
what is the flow of neurons from the horns (plates)? horns -> roots -> root ganglion -> Sensory nerves -> Rami
at what points do the sensory and motor nevers mix? spinal nerves
Where does the posterior rami go to? true back muscles
does the posterior rami contain only sensory neurons? NO. both motor and sensory.
C6 dermatome pollex
C8 5th digit of hand
C3 neck
T4 nipples
T10 Umbilicus
L4 knee
L5 foot and anterior ankle
L1 inguinal line
myotome muscle fibers supplied by a single spinal nerve
Describe the path of a motor fiber to the muscles of the suboccipital triangle (Suboccipital n., C1 Motor cell body in anterior horn→Anterior root →Mixed spinal n. →Posterior ramus
Describe the path of the sensory fibers associated with the Greater occipital n. (C2) Skin over the back of the neck →Posterior ramus →Mixed spinal n. → Cell body in Spinal ganglion →Posterior root →Posterior horn
A patient presents with complaints of numbness over the umbilicus, just anteriorly on the left side. What component of the spinal n. has been damaged? Left anterior ramus of spinal n. T10. because the numb area is just over the anterior part of the body, just the anterior ramus at this level is damaged. If the posterior root were damaged, both the anterior AND posterior parts of the skin would be numb
A patient present with complaints of numbness over the midline of the back, which continues laterally on the right side to the angle of the ribs at the level of the nipples. What component of which spinal n. has been damaged? Right T4 posterior ramus. The numbness is only found posteriorly, so only the posterior ramus has been damaged. If the posterior root (which conveys sensory fibers) were damaged, both the anterior AND posterior parts of the skin would be numb.
A patient present with complaints of numbness over the midline of the shoulders, which continues laterally to the thumbs on both sides. There are no motor deficits. Which component of which spinal n. has been damaged? Posterior root of C6 (both right and left sides). Because there is involvement of regions supplied by both an anterior and a posterior ramus, the simplest explanation is that the posterior ROOT, which carries all sensory innervation, has been damaged.
what are the points of attachment of the pectoralis major? medial half of the clavicle, anterior surface of the sternum and the first 6 costal cartilages. It also attaches to the lateral lip of the intertubercular sulcus.
what are the actions of the pectoralis major? adducts, medially rotates and flexes the humerus at the shoulder joint.
what is the intervation of the pectoralis major? medial (C8-T1) and lateral (C5-C7) pectoral nerves
what are the points of attachment of the pectoralis minor? Ribs 3-5 and coracoid process of scapula
what are the actions of the pectoralis minor? depress the shoulders which leads to the protraction of the scapula
what is the intervation of the pectoralis minor? medial pectoral nerve (C8-T1)
what are the points of attachment of the subclavius muscle? rib 1, and middle one third of the clavicle (inferior surface)
what are the actions of the subclavius muscle? depresses and anchors the clavicle
what is the intervation of the subclavius? nerve to the subclavius (C5-C6)
when do limb buds appear? 4th week of gestation
what is the lateral plate mesoderm? what cartilage/bone originate from
what is the paraxial mesoderm? what dermomyotomes are made from
what is ectoderm? what skin is made from
what roots inervate the upper limb? C4-T2
what influences the development of the limb? the apical ectodermal ridge (AER)
Polydactyly extra digits
syndactyly webbed digits
ectodactyly less digits
Cephalic vein is found toward the thumb side (preaxial border)
basilic vein postaxial vein
what are the compartements of the upper limb? scapulohumeral, posterior axioappendicular, anterior axioappendicular
what is the scapulohumeral compartment? humerous to the scapula and clavicle
what is the posterior axioappendicular compartment? scapula to trunk on the back
what is the anterior axioappendicular compartment? arm to body
what inervates the anterior arm? musculocutaneous nerve
what is the blood supply tot he anterior arm? brachial artery
what ist he blood supply to the posterior arm? deep brachial artery
what inervates the posterior arm? radial nerve
what are the boundries of the cubital fossa? brachioradialis, pronator teres and a line drawn from the medial to the lateral epicondyles
what are the contents of the cubital fossa? biceps brachii tendon, brachial artery and median nerve
what is the median cubital vein this is a point of communication between the cephalic and basilic veins in the cubital fossa
what is the blood supply to the posterior forearm? posterior interosios artery
what is the intervation to the posterior forearm? radial nerve
what is the intervation to the anterior forearm? mostly median nerve some ulnar nerve
what is the blood supply to the anterior forearm? radial and ulnar arteries
what is the carpel tunnel? this is a tunnel made from the carpal bones and the flexor retinaculum
what passes through the carpel tunnel? tendons of the flexor digitorum superficialis and profundus, flexor pollicis longus and the median nerve
what is the problem with carpel tunnel syndrome? there is very little room to exand so if the ligaments need room to expand they will push on the median nerve
what are the compartments of the hand? hypothenar - digiti minimi thenar - pollex central adductor-under thenar interosseous - between metacarpels
what are the tendons in the hand wrapped in? first a synovial sheath and then a fibrous sheath
midpalmar space this is the common flexor sheath
what is the thenar space this is a synovial sheath of the pollex tendons and the common flexos sheath
what sheaths make up the carpel tunnel? the common flexor sheath and the sheath of the pollex tendons
what muscles make up the axillary region? pectoral, subscapular and anterior serratus
real trees drink cider....The END! roots, trunks, divisions, cords and terminal nerves
what intervates the serratus anterior? Long thoracic nerve
what roots make up the long thoracic nerve? C5,6 and 7
how would long thoracic nerve damage affect the scapula? the scapula would be more pominant posteriorly because the serratus anterior would not be intervated correctly and the function of the serratus anterior is to hold down the scapula
what are the roots of the dorsal scapular nerve? C5
what does the dorsal scapular nerve intervate? levatar scapula and both rhomboids
what are the trunks of the brachial plexus superior, middle and inferior
where is the nerve to the subclavius found? stems off of the superior cord and dives inferiorly
where is the suprascapular nerve found? stems off of the syperior cord and dives superiorly
what is erbs palsy? this is when there is damage to C5 and C6 roots due to the damage to the superior region of the sholder and side of head. This is common when giving birth and the infants head is pulled on.
what is Klumplke's paralysis? This is damage to the inferior trunk (C8 and T1). This occurs when falling and attempting to hold yourself by grabbing on to something and the arm is pulled upward.
what are the cords of the brachial plexus? lateral, posterior, and medial
what nerves stem off of the lateral cord? lateral pectoral
what nevers stem off of the posterior cord? Upper subscapular, thoracodorsal, lower subscapular
what nerves stem off of the medial cord? medial pectoral, medial brachial cutaneous nerve, medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve
what are the terminal branches of the brachial plexus? musculocutaneous, axillary, radial, median, and ulnar
what never stems from the musculocutaneous nerve? lateral cutaneous never of the forearm
what roots make up the musculocutaneous nerve? C5, C6 and C7
what roots make up the median nerve? C6, C7, C8 and T1
what roots make up the axillary nerve? C5 and C6
what roots make up the radial nerve? C5, 6, 7, 8 and T1
what roots make up the ulnar nerve? C8 and T1
what muscles does the musculocutaneous never innervate? coracobrachialis, biceps brachii, brachialis. Also, sesntory information from the lateral forearm
what muscles does the axillary nerve innervate? deltoid and teres minor
what muscles does the radial nerve innervate? the posterior compartment of the arm. The triceps brachii and the Anconeus.
what muscles does the radial nerve innervate? Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis longus
what muscles does the deep radial nerve innervate? extensor carpi radialis brevis, extensor digitorum, extensor digiti minimi, and extensor carpi ulnaris and supinator
what muscles does the posterior interosseous nerve innervate? Extensor indicis, abductor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis
what is wrist drop? wrist drop occurs when there is a pinching of the radial nerve. this makes sense because the wrist can not extend without the radial nerve.
what muscles are innervated by the median nerve? pronator teres, palmaris longus, flexor carpi radialis, flexor digitorum superficialis
what muscles are innervated by the anterior interosseous nerve? 1/2 of flexor profundus, flexor pollicis longus, pronator quadrattus
what does the recurrent branch of the median nerve innervate? the hand
what muscles in the hand does the recurrent branch of the median nerve innervate? abductor pollicis brevis, opponens brevis and 1st and 2nd lumbricals
what is the hand of benediction? this is a median nerve disfuntion. This is where you can not flex the pollex and the 1st and 2nd digits
what is the flexor retinaculum? this is fasial plane that forms the anterior portion of the carpel tunnel
what does the ulnar nerve innervate? only flexor carpi ulnaris and 1/2 of the flexor digitorum profundus in the forearm. In the hand: adductor digiti minimi opponens digiti minimi flexor figiti minimi adductor pollicis 3rd and 4th lumbricals palmar interossei dorsal interossei
what is claw hand? this is an ulnar nerve disfunction where the radial nerve works unopposed
what are the nerves of the digits? common palmar digital proper palmar digital dorsal branch dorsal digital nerve
Created by: rchahoud



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