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Nursing 4 Exam 1

Pituitary Disorders

Where is the pituitary gland located? at the base of the brain in the sella turcica aka: "turkish saddle"
What is the pituitary gland also known as? "master gland"
How big is the pituitary gland? size of a pea
What is the pituitary gland influenced by? hypothalamus
What does the pituitary gland do? promotes growth of body tissue, influences water absorption by the kidney and controls sexual development and function
How many parts is the pituitary gland divided into? two
What are the parts that the pituitary gland are divided into? anterior and posterior
what is another name for the anterior pituitary gland? adenohypophysis
What is another name for the posterior pituitary gland? Neurohypophysis
What is the anterior lobe's(adenohypophysis) function? control growth, metabolism and sexual development
What is the posterior lobe's (neurohypophysis) function? releases hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus
What hormones does the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis) produce? Somatotrophic growth stimulating hormone, Prolactin(PRL), TSH, Adrenocorticotropic(ACTH), FSH, LH
What hormones do the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis)put into the body? Vasopressin and ADH
What disorders are there of the anterior pituitary gland? Hypofunction and Hyperfunction
What disorders are there of the posterior pituitary gland? SIADH(syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone) and Diabetes Insipidus
What are two different categories that the disorders of the anterior pituitary gland labeled as? primary(coming from gland itself) and secondary(coming from hypothalamus)
What are the Gonadotrophic hormones? LH and FSH
What is Panhypopituitarism? (rare)aka: "pituitary dwarfism", growth hormone deficiency refers to abnormally short height in childhood due to the lack of growth hormone
decreased ACTH and/or TSH is... most serious
decreased LH and FSH.... results in sterility, infertility, amenorrhea, delayed puberty, ovarian failure
decreased GH.... results in delayed growth in children and fragile bones in adults
Gigantism? rapid growth of long bones that occurs before puberty
symptoms of gigantism? tall stature, mild to moderate obesity(common), macrocephaly, soft tissue hypertrophy, exaggerated growth of hands and feet w/thick fingers and toes, coarse facial features
acromegaly? growth hormone hypersecretion where the bone and connective tissue continue to grow resulting in enlargement of face, hands and feet that occurs after puberty
Acromegaly can cause? snoring, sleep apnea, carpal tunnel, and deepening of the voice
Acromegaly is... a slow increase in bone thickness, hypertrophy of skin and organs
growth hormone is an.... insulin antagonist
symptoms of acromegaly... polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
hypopituitary assessment... physical exam, direct measurement of pituitary hormone, MRI/CT (head)
symptoms of hypopituitarism... h/a, confusion, visual changes, anosmia**hallmark sign**(lack of smell)
hypopituitary interventions... testosterone(IM or transdermal)-men, estrogen and progesterone-women, GH injections, clomid and hCG for pregnancy
causes of hypopituitarism? tumors**main cause**, surgery, radiation, infarction, metatastic disease, trauma(head), congenital defects
function impairment precipitated by... severe malnutrition, rapid body fat loss, sheehan's syndrome
sheehan's syndrome... postpartum condition of pituitary necrosis(postpartum hemorrhage)
causes of hyperpituitarism? a GH oversecretion usually from a pituitary tumor or hypothalmic dysfunction
disorders of hyperpituitarism? gigantism and acromegaly
hyperpituitary assessment... clincal manifestations, psychosocial, lab tests(serum hormone levels,increased GH), CT/MRI
clinical manifestations of hyperpituitarism? diabetes, increased hands,feet and lips, coarsening of skin, heart failure, sleep apnea
hyperpituitary treatments... drugs(sandostatin-results shown in 5-10yrs), radiation(takes a long time-risk of eye damage), surgery(removal of tumor), hypophosectomy(removal of pituitary gland), craniotomy(rarely done)
Post op care for patient after hypophosectomy or transsphenoidal hypophysectomy... head of bed elevated at least 30 degrees, nasal packing after 2-3 days, no coughing, sneezing, straining, brushing teeth or bending forward for 2 wks after
Created by: jbittner
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