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VidebeckVocabulary1

Mental Health Promotion Module 1 Videbeck

QuestionAnswer
12 step program based on the philosophy that total abstinence is essential and that alcoholics need the help and support of others to maintain sobriety
abuse the wrongful use and maltreatment of another person
affect the outward expression of the client’s emotional state
agoraphobia fear of being outside; from the Greek fear of the marketplace
akathisia intense need to move about; characterized by restless movement, pacing, inability to remain still, and the client’s re-port of inner restlessness
anhedonia having no pleasure or joy in life; losing any sense of pleasure from activities formerly enjoyed
anorexia an eating disorder characterized by the client’s refusal or inability to maintain a minimally normal body weight, intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, signifi-cantly disturbed perception of the shape or size of the body, and steadfast inability
anxiety a vague feeling of dread or apprehension; it is a response to external or internal stimuli that can have behavioral, emo-tional, cognitive, and physical symptom
anxiety disorders a group of conditions that share a key feature of excessive anxiety, with ensuing behavioral, emotional, cog-nitive, and physiologic responses
automatism repeated, seemingly purposeless behaviors often in-dicative of anxiety, such as drumming fingers, twisting locks of hair, or tapping the foot; unconscious mannerism
behaviorism a school of psychology that focuses on observable behaviors and what one can do externally to bring about behavior changes. It does not attempt to explain how the mind works.
blackout an episode during which the person continues to func-tion but has no conscious awareness of his or her behavior at the time nor any later memory of the behavior; usually associ-ated with alcohol consumption
bulimia nervosa an eating disorder characterized by recurrent episodes (at least twice a week for 3 months) of binge eating followed by inappropriate compensatory behaviors to avoid weight gain such as purging (self-induced vomiting or use of laxatives, diuretics, enemas
character consists of concepts about the self and the external world
codependence a maladaptive coping pattern on the part of fam-ily members or others that results from a prolonged relation-ship with the person who uses substances
cognitive therapy focuses on immediate thought processing; how a person perceives or interprets his or her experience and determines how he or she feels and behaves
compulsions ritualistic or repetitive behaviors or mental acts that a person carries out continuously in an attempt to neu-tralize anxiety
confabulation clients may make up answers to fill in memory gaps; usually associated with organic brain problems
confidentiality respecting the client’s right to keep private any information about his or her mental and physical health and related care
congruence occurs when words and actions match
defense mechanisms cognitive distortions that a person uses unconsciously to maintain a sense of being in control of a situ-ation, to lessen discomfort, and to deal with stress; also called ego defense mechanisms
delirium a syndrome that involves a disturbance of conscious-ness accompanied by a change in cognition
delusion a fixed, false belief not based in reality
dementia a mental disorder that involves multiple cognitive deficits, initially involving memory impairment with progres-sive deterioration that includes all cognitive functioning
denial defense mechanism; clients may deny directly having any problems or may minimize the extent of problems or actual substance use
detoxification the process of safely withdrawing from a substance
diagnostic axes the five axes that comprise diagnosis under DSM-IV-TR criteria; include major mental illnesses, mental retardation or personality disorders, medical illnesses, psy-chosocial stressors, and global assessment of functioning (GAF)
diagnostics and statistics manual (DSM-IV-TR) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders taxonomy published by the APA; the DSM-IV-TR describes all mental disorders and outlines specific diagnostic criteria for each based on clinical experience and research
dual diagnosis the client with both substance abuse and another psychiatric illness
dystonia extrapyramidal side effect to antipsychotic medication; includes acute muscular rigidity and cramping, a stiff or thick tongue with difficulty swallowing, and, in severe cases, laryn-gospasm and respiratory difficulties; also called dystonic reactions
dysphoric mood that involves unhappiness, restlessness, and malaise
echolalia repetition or imitation of what someone else says; echoing what is heard
echopraxia imitation of the movements and gestures of some-one an individual is observing
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) used to treat depression in select groups such as clients who do not respond to antide-pressants or those who experience intolerable medication side effects at therapeutic doses
extrapyramidal side effects reversible movement disorders induced by antipsychotic or neuroleptic medication
flat affect showing no facial expression
flight of ideas excessive amount and rate of speech composed of fragmented or unrelated ideas; racing, often unconnected, thoughts
enmeshment lack of clear role boundaries between persons
hallucinations false sensory perceptions or perceptual experi-ences that do not really exist
ideas of reference client’s inaccurate interpretation that general events are personally directed to him or her, such as hearing a speech on the news and believing the message has personal meaning
insight the ability to understand the true nature of one’s situation and accept some personal responsibility for that situation
process in communication, denotes all nonverbal messages that the speaker uses to give meaning and context to the message
judgment refers to the ability to interpret one’s environment and situation correctly and to adapt one’s behavior and decisions accordingly
kindling process the snowball-like effect seen when minor sei-zure activity seems to build up into more frequent and severe seizures
labile rapidly changing or fluctuating, such as someone’s mood or emotions
limit-setting an effective technique that involves three steps: stating the behavioral limit (describing the unacceptable be-havior), identifying the consequences if the limit is exceeded, and identifying the expected or desired behavior
loose associations disorganized thinking that jumps from one idea to another with little or no evident relation between the thoughts
mania a distinct period during which mood is abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable
mental health a state of emotional, psychological, and social wellness evidenced by satisfying relationships, effective behav-ior and coping, positive self-concept, and emotional stability
mental disorder defined by DSM-IV,clinically significant behavioral or psychological syndrome or pattern and is associated with present distress (a painful symptom) or disability (impairment in one or more important areas of functioning)
milieu therapy the concept involves clients’ interactions with one another, that is, practicing interpersonal relationship skills, giving one another feedback about behavior, and work-ing cooperatively as a group to solve day-to-day problems
neuroleptic malignant syndrome(NMS) a potentially fatal, idiosyncratic reaction to an antipsychotic (or neuroleptic) drug
neuroleptics antipsychotic medications
neurotransmitter the chemical substances manufactured in the neuron that aid in the transmission of information throughout the body
obsessions recurrent, persistent, intrusive, and unwanted thoughts, images, or impulses that cause marked anxiety and interfere with interpersonal, social, or occupational function
obsessive–compulsive personality disorder characterized by a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with perfectionism, mental and interpersonal control, and orderliness at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency
paranoid personality disorder characterized by pervasive mis-trust and suspiciousness of others
personal zone space of 18 to 36 inches; a comfortable distance between family and friends who are talking
personality disorders diagnosed when personality traits become inflexible and maladaptive and significantly interfere with how a person functions in society or cause the person emotional distress
phobia an illogical, intense, and persistent fear of a specific object or social situation that causes extreme distress and in-terferes with normal functioning
wernicke's syndrome Encephalopathy associated with thiamine deficiency; usually associated with chronic alcoholism or other causes of severe malnutrition.
pressured speech unrelenting, rapid, often loud talking without pauses
psychomotor retardation overall slowed movements; a general slowing of all movements; slow cognitive processing and slow verbal interaction
psychosis cluster of symptoms including delusions, hallucina-tions, and grossly disordered thinking and behavior
psychosomatic used to convey the connection between the mind(psyche)and the body(soma)in states of health and illness
psychotropic drugs drugs that affect mood, behavior, and think-ing that are used to treat mental illness
self-esteem One's personal evaluation or view of self, generally thought to influence feelings and behaviors
schizophrenia A thought disorder marked by delusions, hallucinations, and disorganized speech and behavior (the “positive” symptoms) and by flat affect, social withdrawal, and absence of volition (the “negative” symptoms).
self-awareness the process by which a person gains recognition of his or her own feelings, beliefs, and attitudes
sensorium 1)That portion of the brain that functions as a center of sensations. 2)The sensory apparatus of the body taken as a whole. 3)Awareness; consciousness.
somatoform disorders characterized as the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a medical condition without a demon-strable organic basis to account fully for them
substance abuse can be defined as using a drug in a way that is inconsistent with medical or social norms and despite negative consequences
suicidal ideation thinking about killing oneself
suicide precautions removal of harmful items; increased super-vision to prevent acts of self-harm
tardive dyskinesia a late-onset, irreversible neurologic side effect of antipsychotic medications; characterized by abnor-mal, involuntary movements such as lip smacking, tongue protrusion, chewing, blinking, grimacing, and choreiform movements of the limbs and feet
temperament refers to the biologic processes of sensation, association, and motivation that underlie the integration of skills and habits based on emotion
termination or resolution phase the final stage in the nurse–client relationship; it begins when the client’s problems are resolved and concludes when the relationship ends
therapeutic milieu beneficial environment; the use of people, resources, and events in the patient’s immediate environment to promote optimal psychosocial functioning
tolerance the need for increased amount of a substance to pro-duce the same effect
withdrawal syndrome refers to the negative psychological and physical reactions that occur when use of a substance ceases or dramatically decreases
limit setting Establishing the parameters of desirable and acceptable patient behavior
addiction A compulsive and maladaptive dependence on a substance (e.g., alcohol, cocaine, opiates, or tobacco) or a behavior (e.g., gambling). The dependence typically produces adverse psychological, physical, economic, social, or legal ramifications.
blunted affect showing little or a slow-to-respond fa-cial expression•
broad affect displaying a full range of emotional expressions•
flat affect showing no facial expression•
inappropriate affect displaying a facial expression that is incongruent with mood or situation; often silly or giddy regardless of circumstances•
restricted affect displaying one type of expression, usually serious or somber
alcoholism Chronic, frequently progressive, sometimes fatal disease marked by impaired control over alcohol use despite adverse effects. Dependence on alcohol, tolerance of its effects, and remissions and relapses are common. Denial of addiction.
apathy Indifference; insensibility; lack of emotion.
volition The act or power of willing or choosing.
avolition against one's will, unwilling.
behavioral theories View anxiety as being learned through experiences and conversely, that people can change or “unlearn” behaviors through new experiences.
bipolar disorder involves extreme mood swings from episodes of mania to episodes of depression.
manic phases clients are euphoric, grandiose, energetic, and sleep-less. They have poor judgment and rapid thoughts, actions, and speech.
process recording recording of communication, denotes all nonverbal messages that the speaker uses to give meaning and context to the message
kindling theory highly sensitized pathways induce spontaneous seizure activity. Kindling may underlie the cycling of mood disorders as well as addiction. Anticonvulsants inhibit kindling; this may explain their efficacy in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
korsakoff’s syndrome a type of dementia caused by long-term, excessive alcohol intake that results in a chronic thiamine or vitamin B deficiency
major depressive disorder typically involves 2 or more weeks of a sad mood or lack of interest in life activities with at least four other symptoms of depression such as anhedonia and changes in weight, sleep, energy, concentration, decision making, self-esteem, and goals.
no self-harm contract a client promises to not engage in self-harm and to report to the nurse when he or she is losing control
professional boundaries It is the nurse’s responsibility to define the boundaries of the relationship clearly in the orientation phase and to ensure those boundaries are maintained throughout the relationship.
Created by: husseyj