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Which cytokine do macrophages stimulate? IL-1
Which cytokines do Th cells stimulate? All except IL-1
Which enlarged lymph nodes are most likely malignant? Supraclavicular; Epitrochlear; Inguinal
What is CD8? Tk (killer) or Ts (suppressor) cell; Responds to MHC-I (self)
What cells express MHC-I? All except RBCs and platelets
What is CD4? Th (helper) cell; Responds to MHC-II (non-self)
What type of immunity does Th1 provide? cell-mediated
What type of immunity does Th2 provide? humoral
What do B cell deficient patients die from? Bacterial Infection
What is the Common Variable Hypogammaglobulinemia? kids w/ B cells that don't differentiate into plasma cells; Low Ab
Bruton's Agammaglobinulinemia Tyrosine kinase deficiency; young adults w/ defective Tyr kinase (Btk gene); Blocks B cell development; NO Ab X-linked
Job's Syndrome Tyrosine kinase deficiency; Stuck in IgE stage; Redheaded females
Multiple Myeloma Multiple osteolytic lesions; IgG; kappa light chains; rouleaux formation
Heavy Chain Disease IgA and Multiple Myeloma of the GI tract
Selective IgG2 deficiency Recurrent encapsulated infections
Selective IgA deficiency Transfusion anaphylaxis; Mucous membrane infections
Hairy Cell Leukemia Fried egg appearance; TRAP+
Ataxia Telangiectasia Low IgA; Neuro problems
Hyper IgM Syndrome High IgM; All other Ab low
What kind of problems do you see in patients with defects in cell-mediated immunity? Viral; Fungal; Mycobacteria; Protozoa; Parasite; Neoplasm
What do T cell deficient patients die from? Viral Infection
DiGeorge Syndrome No thymus or inferior parathyroids; Low Ca2+ (only immunodeficiency w/low Ca2+); problem with 3rd & 4th pharyngeal pouches; deletion on Chrom 22
Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis T cell defect against Candida albicans; Chronic fatigue
SCID Adenosine deaminase deficiency; T cells more affected than B cells; Frameshift/Nonsense mutation; Increased bacterial and fungal infections; NO thymus; Frayed long bones; Baby dies by 18mo
Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Low IgM; Low platelets; High IgA; Increased IL-4; Eczema; Petechiae
What does the CD4 count tell you? Status of HIV (normal 800-1200; kids up to 1500)
What does the viral load tell you? Progression of HIV
What organs have the most CD4 receptors? Blood vessels; Brain; Testicles; Cervix; Rectum
What are the 3 tests used to screen for HIV? ELISA (detects IgG Ab to p24 Ag); Western Blot (see >2 proteins); PCR (detects virus esp in babies)
What is the definition of AIDS? CD4<200/uL or clinical symptoms
9 Live Vaccines "MMR OR Very Yellow Sick Babies" Measles (Rubeola); Mumps; Rubella (German 3-day measles); OPV (Sabin oral polio vaccine); Rotavirus; Varicella; Yellow Fever; Smallpox; BCG
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis Anti-mitochondrial Ab; Pruritus; Females
Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis p-ANCA; bile duct inflammation; onion skinning; IBD
Type I Autoimmune Hepatitis Anti-SM Ab; young women
Type II Autoimmune Hepatitis Anti-LKM Ab; kids
Bullous Pemphigoid Anti-hemidesmisomes Ab; skin bullae
Celiac Sprue Anti-gliadin / Anti-gluten Ab (wheat); Steatorrhea
CREST Syndrome Anti-centromere Ab; Calcinosis; Raynaud's; Esophageal dysmotility (GERD); Sclerodactyly; Telangiectasia
Dermatitis herpetiformis Anti-BMZ Ab; Anti-endomysial Ab; Vesicles on the anterior thigh; assoc w/ celiac sprue
Dermatomyositis Anti-Jo-1 Ab; Mysositis + Rash
DM Type I Anti-islet cell Ab; Anti-GAD Ab; Polyuria, Polydipsia, Weight Loss
Drug-Induced Lupus Anti-histone Ab (HIPPPE); Hydralazine, INH, Procainamide, Penicillamine, Phenytoin, Ethosuximide
Gastritis Type A Anti-parietal cell Ab; Atrophic gastritis; Achlorhydria; Adenocarcinoma (increased risk)
Goodpasture's Anti-GBM Ab; attacks lung & kidney; mcc RPGN
Grave's disease Anti-TSHr Ab; HYPERthyroid; Bug eyes (exopthalmos); Pretibial myxedema
Guillain-Barre Anti-ganglioside Ab; ascending paralysis; 2wk after URI
Hashimoto's Anti-microsomal Ab; Anti-thyroid peroxidase Ab; HYPOthyroid
ITP Anti-platelet Ab; Anti-GP2b3a Ab; Thrombocytopenia
Mixed CT Disease Anti-RNP Ab
Mononucleosis Heterophile Ab; teen w/ sore throat
MPGN Type II Anti-C3 convertase Ab (C3 nephritic factor)
Multiple Sclerosis Anti-myelin Ab; middle-aged female w/ vision problems
Myasthenia Gravis Anti-AChr Ab; female w/ ptosis; weaker as the day goes on
Paroxysmal Hemolysis Donath Landsteiner Ab; bleeds when cold
Pemphigus Vulgaris Anti-desmosome Ab; skin sloughs off when touched
Pernicious Anemia Anti-IF Ab; Vit B12 deficient; MEGAloblastic anemia
Polyarteritis Nodosa p-ANCA; attacks gut & kidney; Hep B
Post-Strep Glomerulonephritis ASO Ab; NephrItic w/ complement deposition; subepithelial humps
Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid factor; pain worse in the morning
Scleroderma Anti-Scl70; Anti-TopoI; Fibrosis; tight skin
Sjogren's Anti-SSA; Dry "sand in" eyes; Dry mouth; Arthritis
SLE Anti-dsDNA/Smith/Cardiolipin; Rash; Photosensitivity; Oral ulcers; RF
SLE cerebritis Anti-neuronal Ab; Anti-ribosomal Ab
Vitiligo Anti-melanocyte Ab; white patches
Warm Hemolysis Anti-Rh Ab; bleeds at body temp
Wegener's c-ANCA; attacks ENT, lungs, kidney; #2 cause of RPGN
Drugs that cause Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia "PACSAP"; PTU, alpha-methyldopa, cephalosporins, sulfa drugs, anti-malarials, penicillin
Drugs that cause Autoimmune Thrombocytopenia Aspirin; Heparin; Quinidine
T-cytotoxic cells CD8+, CD4-, recognize MHC-I, also have CD2 & CD3 markers
T-helper cells CD4+, CD8-, recognize MCH-II, also have CD2 & CD3 markers
Which MHC do macrophages display? MHC-II
CVID Tyrosine kinase deficiency; late onset; Frameshift/Missense mutation
HIV (HTLV-1) Effects CD4 rich tissues (blood vessels, brain, testicles, cervix, rectum); T cells more affected than B cells
Leukemias & Lymphomas 98% B cells in both
Created by: clbaca



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