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Mr.Wills Holt Ch 14

Mr.Wills Holt Ch 14 Created by Destiny M

Cards Created by a student; inaccuracies may be present
Mutation A change in the structure or amount of genetic material of an organism
Mutagen An environmental factor that affects the rate of mutation
Point Mutation A change of a single nucleotide in a sequence from one kind of base to another
Insertion or deletion Adding or removing a nucleotide from a DNA sequence
Silent Mutation No effect on a gene’s function is present
Missense Mutatuon Results when a codon is changed and codes for another amino acid
Frameshift Mutation causes a shift in the reading frame, and amino acids to be wrong
Nonsense Mutation Results when a codon is changed to a “Stop” signal
More of fewer amino acids Affects the proteins structure and function
Deletion Removes a nucleotide from a DNA sequence
Duplication Another copy of a gene is made
Inversion Flips a gene
Translocation A piece of the chromosome is broken off and it attaches to another chromosome
Gene rearrangement moving genes to a new location
Germ cells make up gamete cells
Somatic cells make up the rest of the body
Nondisjunction when pairs of gametes fail to separate properly (ex: Down Syndrome)
Polyploidy a cell with multiple sets of chromosomes
Gene regulation Transcription and translation can be regulated
Genetic switch a molecular system that controls the expression of a specific gene
Operon a gene-regulation system in which adjacent DNA segments control the expression of a group of genes
Enhancer a kind of DNA sequence that can be bound by an activator
Promoter tells the gene to start
Transcription factor proteins that help turn on the genetic switches
Intron Noncoding sections of an amino acid
Extron Codes for amino acids
Protein domain Parts of a protein that have a specific chemical structure and function
Cell differentiation Each new cell is modified and specialized as the cells multiply to form a body
What causes Mutations? a permanent change in DNA sequence
What are the effects of mutations? The effects of mutation are shown in an organism’s phenotype
How are mutations categorized? Changes in DNA or changes in the results of genes
How do mutations affect us? Tumors and cancers, alleles, genetic disorders
When are mutations heritable (passed on)? when its in the germ cells
How do mutations cause cancer? if they lack genes that control normal growth of cells
How do mutations cause new alleles? As a result of silent mutation
What are two major causes of mutations that occur during mitosis and meiosis? Nondisjunction and polyploidy
What is gene regulation? How are body knows how to use a certain gene
What are the jobs of enhancers and promoters? They start and speed up amino acids
What is junk DNA? Junk DNA is the DNA that is not coded for
Why is cell differentiation important? It’s how we get all the cells in our body
What is the process that controls cell growth and maintenance? Cell cycle
Created by: mrwillsshs