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soc real world ch 3

Sociology The Real World Stein Chapter 3

QuestionAnswer
access The process by which an ethnographer gains entry to a field setting.
applied research Research designed to allow the researcher to use what is learned to create some sort of change.
basic research The search for knowledge without any agenda or desire to use that knowledge to effect change.
bias An opinion held by the researcher that might affect the research or analysis.
causation A relationship between variables in which a change in one directly produces a change in the other.
closed-ended question A question asked of a respondent that imposes a limit on the possible responses.
code of ethics Ethical guidelines for researchers to consult as they design a project.
comparative and historical methods Methods that use existing sources to study relationships between elements of society in various regions and time periods.
confidentiality The assurance that no one other than the researcher will know the identity of a respondent.
content analysis A method in which researchers identify and study specific variables—such as words—in a text, image, or media message.
control In an experiment, the process of regulating all factors except for the independent variable.
control group The part of a test group that is allowed to continue without intervention so that it can be compared with the experimental group.
correlation A relationship between variables in which they change together. May or may not be causal.
deception The extent to which the participants in a research project are unaware of the project or its goals.
dependent variable Factor that is changed by the independent variable.
double-barreled questions Questions that attempt to get at multiple issues at once and so tend to receive incomplete answers.
ethnography A naturalistic method based on studying people in their own environment in order to understand the meanings they attribute to their activities; also the written work that results from the study.
existing sources Any data that have already been collected and are available for future research.
experimental group The part of a test group that receives the experimental treatment.
experiments Formal tests of specific variables and effects, performed in a controlled setting where all aspects of the situation can be controlled.
fieldnotes Detailed notes taken by an ethnographer describing her activities and interactions, which later become the basis of the ethnographic analysis.
grounded theory An inductive method of generating theory from data by creating categories in which to place data and then looking for relationships between categories.
Hawthorne effect A specific example of reactivity, in which the desired effect is the result not of the independent variable, but of the research itself.
hypothesis A theoretical statement explaining the relationship between two or more phenomena.
independent variable Factor that is predicted to cause change.
informed consent A safeguard through which the researcher makes sure that respondents are freely participating and understand the nature of the research.
institutional review board A group of scholars within a university who meet regularly to review and approve the research proposals of their colleagues and make recommendations for how to protect human subjects.
intervening variable A third variable, sometimes overlooked, that explains the relationship between two other variables.
interviews Face-to-face, information-seeking conversation, sometimes defined as a conversation with a purpose.
leading questions Questions that predispose a respondent to answer in a certain way.
Likert scale A way of organizing categories on a survey question so that the respondent can choose an answer along a continuum.
literature review A thorough search through previously published studies relevant to a particular topic.
negative questions Survey questions that ask respondents what they don't think instead of what they do.
objectivity Impartiality, the ability to allow the facts to speak for themselves.
open-ended question A question asked of a respondent that allows the answer to take whatever form the respondent chooses.
operational definition A clear and precise definition of a variable that facilitates its measurement.
paradigm shift The term used to describe a change in basic assumptions of a particular scientific discipline.
participant observation A methodology associated with ethnography whereby the researcher both observes and becomes a member in a social setting.
pilot study A small study carried out to test the feasibility of a larger one.
probability sampling Any sampling scheme in which the probability of selecting any given unit is known.
qualitative A type of data that can't be converted into numbers, usually because they relate to meaning.
quantitative A type of data that can be converted into numbers, usually for statistical comparison.
rapport A positive relationship often characterized by mutual trust or sympathy.
reactivity The tendency of people and events to react to the process of being studied.
reflexivity How the identity and activities of the researcher influence what is going on in the field setting.
reliability The consistency of a question or measurement tool, the degree to which the same questions will produce similar answers.
replicability Research that can be repeated, and thus verified, by other researchers later.
representative sample A sample taken so that findings from members of the sample group can be generalized to the whole population.
representiveness The degree to which a particular studied group is similar to, or represents, any part of the larger society.
respondent Someone from whom a researcher solicits information.
response rate The number or percentage of surveys completed by respondents and returned to researchers.
sample The part of the population that will actually be studied.
scientific method A procedure for acquiring knowledge that emphasizes collecting concrete data through observation and experiment.
simple random sample A particular type of probability sample in which every member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.
spurious correlation The appearance of causation produced by an intervening variable.
survey A method based on questionnaires that are administered to a sample of respondents selected from a target population.
target population The entire group about which a researcher would like to be able to generalize.
validity The accuracy of a question or measurement tool; the degree to which a researcher is measuring what he thinks he is measuring.
value-free sociology An ideal whereby researchers identify facts without allowing their own personal beliefs or biases to interfere.
variables One of two or more phenomena that a researcher believes are related and hopes to prove are related through research.
weighting Techniques for manipulating the sampling procedure so that the sample more closely resembles the larger population.
study time and grades What are the variables in the following statement, “Studying affects one’s grades?”
survey Customer comment cards people fill out in some restaurants are an example of a/an:
hypothesis The following statement, “Studying affects one’s grades,” would be an example of a:
the experimental group Who would be asked to watch television in an experiment where a sociologist is testing whether or not watching television impacts a student’s grade on an exam?
open ended question The following question, “What do you think about capital punishment?” would be an example of a/an:
closed ended question The following question, “Are you for or against capital punishment?” would be an example of a/an:
ethnography A method based on studying people in their own environment in order to understand the meanings they attribute to their activities is called:
the exam grade What would the dependent variable be in an experiment where a sociologist is testing whether or not watching television impacts a student’s grade on an exam?
the watching of television What would the independent variable be in an experiment where a sociologist is testing whether or not watching television impacts a student’s grade on an exam?
target population The entire group about which a researcher would like to be able to generalize is a:
survey Which research method is most likely to include the use of the Likert scale?
representative sample A sample taken so that the findings can be generalized to the whole population is called a:
quantitative dataT he specific approval rating of the U.S. president would be an example of:
reliability The consistency of a question or measurement tool is called:
qualitative data. A type of data that is not easily converted into numbers, usually because it relates to meaning, is:
personal beliefs and biases. Value-free sociology attempts to eliminate ______ from research.
the hawthorne effect When study participants act differently when they know they are being observed ; they are said to be exhibiting
an institutional review board Most universities have __________, which monitors the ethics of research projects conducted by its members.
They attempt to control for all possible variables except the one under investigation. What is one of the basic goals for sociologists conducting an experiment?
content analysis A method in which researchers identify and analyze specific texts, images, or media messages is called:
True Ethnographies make it difficult to study groups that are often overlooked by other methods. True/False
sample The individuals that a sociologist interviews as part of a research project would be a part of the:
Created by: hkrawietz