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soc real world ch 2

Sociology The Real World Stein Chapter 2

QuestionAnswer
alienation Dec import of social ties and comm and the corresponding incr in impersonal assoc and instrumental logic; also, according to Marx, the sense of dissatisf the modern worker feels as a result of producing goods that are owned and controlled by someone else.
anomie "Normlessness"; term used to describe the alienation and loss of purpose that result from weaker social bonds and an increased pace of change.
antithesis The opposition to the existing arrangements in a dialectical model.
bourgeoisie Owners; the class of modern capitalists who are the employers of wage labor.
bureaucracy A type of secondary group designed to perform tasks efficiently, characterized by specialization, technical competence, hierarchy, written rules, impersonality, and formal written communication.
capitalism An economic system based on the laws of free market competition, privatization of the means of production, and production for profit, with an emphasis on competition and supply and demand as a means to set prices.
class consciousness Awareness of one's own social status and that of others; also, the recognition of social inequality on the part of the oppressed, leading to revolutionary action.
communism A system of government that eliminates private property; the most extreme form of socialism, because all citizens work for the government and there are no class distinctions.
conflict Generated by the competition between different class groups for scarce resources and the source of all social change, according to Karl Marx.
conflict theory A paradigm that sees social conflict as the basis of society and social change and emphasizes a materialist view of society, a critical view of the status quo, and a dynamic model of historical change.
conversation analysis A sociological approach that looks at how we create meaning in naturally occurring conversation, often by taping conversations and examining them.
critical theory A contemporary form of conflict theory that criticizes many different systems and ideologies of domination and oppression.
dialectical model Marx's model of historical change, whereby two extreme positions come into conflict and create some new third position between them.
double consciousness W.E.B. DuBois's term for the conflict felt by and about African Americans, who were both American (and hence entitled to rights and freedoms) and African (and hence subject to prejudices and discrimination) at the same time.
dramaturgy A theoretical paradigm pioneered by Erving Goffman in which social life is analyzed in terms of its similarities to theatrical performance to understand how individuals present themselves to others.
dysfunction A disturbance to or undesirable consequence of some aspect of the social system.
elites Those in power in a society.
embodied identity Those elements of identity that are generated through others' perceptions of our physical traits.
empirical Based on scientific experimentation or observation.
Eros In Freudian psychology, the drive or instinct that desires productivity and construction.
ethnomethodology The study of "folk methods," or everyday interactions, that must be uncovered rather than studied directly.
Eurocentrism The tendency to favor European or Western history, culture, and values over other cultures.
false consciousness A denial of the truth on the part of the oppressed when they fail to recognize the interests of the ruling class in their ideology.
feminist theory A theoretical approach that looks at gender inequities in society and the way that gender structures the social world.
ideology A system of beliefs, attitudes, and values that directs a society and reproduces the status quo of the bourgeoisie.
iron cage Max Weber's pessimistic description of modern life, in which the "technical and economic conditions of machine production" control our lives through rigid rules and rationalization.
latent functions The less obvious, perhaps unintended functions of a social structure.
manifest functions The obvious, intended functions of a social structure for the social system.
means of production Anything that can create wealth: money, property, factories, and other types of businesses, and the infrastructure necessary to run them.
mechanical solidarity Term developed by Emile Durkheim to describe the type of social bonds present in premodern, agrarian societies, in which shared tradition and beliefs created a sense of social cohesion.
modernism A paradigm that places trust in the power of science and technology to create progress, solve problems, and improve life.
organic solidarity Term developed by Emile Durkheim to describe the type of social bonds present in modern societies, based on difference, interdependence, and individual rights.
paradigm A set of assumptions, theories, and perspectives that make up a way of understanding social reality.
positivism The theory, developed by Auguste Comte, that sense perceptions are the only valid source of knowledge.
postmodernism A paradigm that suggests that social reality is diverse, pluralistic, and constantly in flux.
pragmatism A theoretical perspective that assumes organisms (including humans) make practical adaptations to their environments. Humans do this through cognition, interpretation, and interaction.
praxis Practical action that is taken on the basis of intellectual or theoretical understanding.
proletariat Workers; those who have no means of production of their own and so are reduced to selling their labor power in order to live.
psychoanalysis The therapeutic branch of psychology founded by Sigmund Freud in which free association and dream interpretation are used to explore the unconscious mind.
queer theory A paradigm that proposes that cat of sexual ident are social constructs and that no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normal; this paradigm emphasizes the import of difference and rejects as restrict the idea of innate sexual identity.
rationalization The application of economic logic to human activity; the use of formal rules and regulations in order to maximize efficiency without consideration of subjective or individual concerns.
repression The process that causes unwanted or taboo desires to return via tics, dreams, slips of the tongue, and neuroses, according to Freud.
scientific method A procedure for acquiring knowledge that emphasizes collecting concrete data through observation and experiment.
social inequality The unequal distribution of wealth, power, or prestige among members of a society.
socialism An economic system based on the collective ownership of the means of production, collective distribution of goods and services, and government regulation of the economy.
solidarity The degree of integration or unity within a particular society; the extent to which individuals feel connected to other members of their group.
structural functionalism A paradigm that begins with the assumption that society is a unified whole that functions because of the contributions of its separate structures.
structure A social institution that is relatively stable over time and that meets the needs of society by performing functions necessary to maintain social order and stability.
sublimation The process in which socially unacceptable desires are healthily channeled into socially acceptable expressions, according to Freud.
symbolic interactionism A paradigm that sees interaction and meaning as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created through interaction.
synthesis The new social system created out of the conflict between thesis and antithesis in a dialectical model.
Thanatos In Freudian psychology, the drive or instinct toward aggression or destruction.
theories In sociology, abstract propositions that explain the social world and make predictions about future events.
thesis The existing social arrangements in a dialectical model.
verstehen "To understand"; Weber's term to describe good social research, which tries to understand the meanings that individual social actors attach to various actions and events.
Herbert Spencer Who first applied a theory of evolution and “survival of the fittest” to societies?
True Durkheim suggested that mechanical solidarity created the social bonds that held agrarian societies together. True/False
False According to Durkheim, social bonds are not found in all societies because there are so many different types of societies. True/False
Structural Functionalism Which of the following is a paradigm that begins with the assumption that society is a unified whole that functions because of the contributions of its separate structures? Conflict Theory Labeling Theory Structural Functionalism Symbolic Interactionism
Organic solidarity According to Durkheim, people in a modern car factory, where each worker is responsible for building a different part of the car, would experience: mechanical solidarity, organic solidarity, communism, anomie
bourgeoisie; proletariat Karl Marx referred to the owners as the _______ and the workers as the _______.
applied W. E. B. Du Bois and Jane Addams were pioneers of ________ sociology, which connected research to social activism and public policy.
class consciousness According to Marx, the recognition of social inequality on the part of the oppressed that would lead to revolutionary action is called:
Auguste Comte Who first attempted to apply the scientific method to the study of society?
latent Keeping children busy for 8 hours a day and out of trouble would be an example of a __________ function of education.
Conflict theory Which of the following is a paradigm that emphasizes a materialist view of society, a critical view of the status quo, and a dynamic model of historical change? a)Conflict Theory b)Labeling Theory c)Structural Functionalism d)Symbolic Interactionism
George Herbert Mead Much of Symbolic Interactionism is derived from the teachings of:
Queer Theory What theory proposes that categories of sexual identity are social constructs and that no sexual category is fundamentally either deviant or normal?
the maintenance of cultural patterns Which of the following is one of the types of functions that social structures might fulfill according to Talcott Parsons? a) discovery of an ultimate truth b) the maintenance of cultural patterns c)social activism d)social conflict
means of production Anything that can be used to create more wealth, such as money and property, is referred to as:
dramaturgy The theoretical offshoot of Symbolic Interactionism that uses the metaphor of the theater to understand how individuals present themselves to others is called:
Because society changes over time. Why do social theories change?
Feminism began as a movement dedicated to securing the same rights for both women and men. Feminism began as a movement to ...
the meanings that a teacher attaches to the various behaviors of students A symbolic interactionist analysis of education might focus on: a)tmeanings that a teacher attaches to the various behaviors of students b)functions that education provides for society
Symbolic Interactionism Name the paradigm that sees meaning as central to society and assumes that meanings are not inherent but are created?
manifest Teaching students to read and write would be an example of a __________ function of education.
conflict According to Karl Marx, _______ is the source of all social change.
diverse, pluralistic, and constantly in flux According to Postmodern Theory, society is:
theory An abstract proposition that both explains the social world and makes predictions about future events is a:
rationalization According to the text, Max Weber’s most overriding concern was with the process of:
Created by: hkrawietz