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Vocab. StarsUnit S.1

Science Vocabulary for Stars Unit

Protostar an early stage in the process of star formation
Sunspots They are caused by intense magnetic activity. Dark spots compared to surrounding areas.
Supernova burst of radiation, new star
High mass Star Formation main sequence, red super giant, supernova, black hole OR neutron star
Low mass star formation main sequence, red giant, white dwarf
fusion nuclei join together and expand the whole star
H-R Diagram scatter graph of stars showing the relationship between the stars' absolute magnitudes
Absolute magnitude measure of a celestial object's brightness
Black hole region of spacetime from which nothing (not even light) can escape
fission (splitting of something into two parts) is a nuclear reaction where the nucleus splits into smaller parts , producing neutrons and protons (in the form of gamma rays), and releasing energy.
What does the sun effect? EVERYTHING
How much mass does the Sun contain of the whole Solar System? 98.86%
Different colored stars = Different surface temperature
Sun Hydrogen & Helium
Plasma part of matter; when hydrogen atoms produce energy
At extreme temperatures, atoms... Electrons are stripped off and leave nuclei
Core Center of the sun *matter is 10x denser than lead
gravity & Sun Large amount of mass = continual nuclear reactions
radiation Zone next to the core. Photons bounce
Interface Layer Between radiation zone and convection zone. Magnetic field
Convection Zone *Cooler temperature = atoms with electrons will have convect
Convect Circular movement of particles, heat goes through them
Name all the outer Layers of the sun Photosphere Chromosphere, and Corona
How many Inner layers of the sun are there? 4
name the inner layers of the sun Core, Interface, convection, radiation zone
How many outer layers of the sun are there? 3
Photosphere Visible surface of the sun, Most light, (No solid materials)thin
What does photosphere mean? Sphere of light
Chromosphere Above the photosphere, hotter than the photosphere
Corona Final Layer, visible during a solar eclipse, forms energy *Corona expands from sun = Solar Wind
Chromosphere means... sphere of color
Corona means... crown
is the Sun static? NO
Is the sun a solid? NO
What is one thing the sun does for the planets? Holds planets in orbit
Sun's energy is = to 40,000 WATTS per day
Solar Wind when particles escape the gravitational pull from the sun at variety of speeds, which gives off magnetic charge, which sets them free in our solar system
What can Solar Wind do? Destroy space equipment
Solar Flares Violent eruption off the sun = to TNT
Sunspots Cooler/darker places on sun
Little Ice Age point in time when the sun was "quiet" when rivers were frozen and ice was everywhere
Example of radiation Blacksmith's hot iron
As objects get hotter, what do the wavelengths of its radiation do? they shorten and change colors (ROYGBIV Wavelength)
Temperature of a star can be determined by its... COLOR
Absolute magnitude Measure of brightness stars generate from the surface
Bright star magnitude = -5k or below
Average star magnitude = 1k
dim star magnitude = 10k
k stands for ... Kelvin Scale
How do you find temp. using kelvin scale? Temperature in Celsius + 273
What does an H-R Diagram show?! Temperature, absolute magnitude, color, and star
What did Hertzbrung and Russell discover? There is a relationship between brightness and surface temperature
Main Sequence (Line of stars) S - shaped line with adult stars
Red Giants bright b/c of size, but are cooler in temperature
White Dwarfs Extremely hot b/c of helium fusion yet dim b/c of size
How is the H-R Diagram useful? To classify stars/predict how stars change over time. (Temperature and Brightness)
Blue = (Temperature) HOT
Why is blue the color of the hottest stars? More wave frequency = more energy = radiation!
What color would a star with 11,000 - 25,000k be? BLUE
What color would a star with 5,000 - 7,500 k be? Yellow
If a star had an absolute magnitude of -1, what kind of star would it be? Giant
Name 7 parts of the sun Sunspots, Core, Radiation zone, convection zone, corona, chromosphere, andphotosphere
Created by: Zacfan0501