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Philosophy Test #1

QuestionAnswer
What is fallibilism? it doesn't require certainty
How is knowledge reliable based on true beliefs? True beliefs are believed because it's true, if it were false we wouldn't believe it
How could skepticism be self-refuting? There is a possibility that it presupposes falsity. Ex. I do not exist
What is a transcendental argument? Assumptions of a question forces one answer
What are contradicting views of Transcendental vs. Skepticism? Show that the preconditions on posing the skeptical challenge presuppose skepticism’s falsity
What is the general problem of foundationalism? It misses truths
What is the skeptic's claim on knowledge? - "We don't really know" - There is always the possibility of being wrong & illusion
What are 2 necessary conditions in knowing? Belief (Don't know unless you believe) Truth (belief isn't knowledge if it's a lie/false)
Examples of how truth & belief isn't sufficient for knowing. Why? Lucky fortune teller, Tricked Jury - lack good justification
What did Gettier try to prove? Justified true beliefs are not sufficient for knowledge
What were problems in Gettier cases? Believing in something (P) wasn't because it was true
What is reliablilism knowledge is true belief, believed because it’s true - wouldnt believe it if it were false
What is belief? A reliable result of its truth in context where I believe in it
Reliabilism allows knowledge to be certain in what ways? Based on true beliefs because they're true & what we actually know - if it were an illusion then we don't know anything about the world
What is priority of reference over meaning? Reference is fixed by point/social use & the concept is molded to that idea
What is solipsism? "Only my thoughts really exist"
What is abduction? Inference to best explaination
What is induction? Inference from samples of generalizations
What is analytic? Meaning into necessary & sufficient conditions
What is stipulative? Specify new necessary & sufficient conditions
What is theoretical? Find real "essence" "best" definition
What is ostensive? Point out referent (not meaning)
What are problems for cartesian & positivistic versions of foundationalism? - Only saves certain things, misses too much - Won't get back important things - Missing truths
What is metaphysics? What exists & how things are related to each other
What is epistemology? What & how do we know?
What is meaning? What makes expressions about things
What is the Theory of Reference? Ability to specify meanings by giving necessary & sufficient conditions
What is the Old Theory of Meaning & Reference? - Give analytic definition with necessary & sufficient conditions - Referent fits the definition
What are 4 types of definition? Analytic, Stipulative, Theoretical, Ostensive
What is the New Theory of Meaning & Reference? Ostension first, meaning later
What are sound arguments? A valid argument with true premises and true conclusion
What is synonymy? Specifying the same meaning
What are problems with the Old Theory? - Meaning doesn't fix reference - Few analytic definitions - Other definitions don't cover all cases
What are positivist views? - Secure sense data; build world by logical contruction - No God
What is the Cartesian version of skepticism? (DesCartes) - Secure self & "seemings" - Infer world as seen - Argue non-decieving God
Without analytic definitions, how do we separate different referent from no referent? Eliminate & identify
What are some problems with "meaning fixes reference"? It is not based only on what we know in our head. Consider different references in world, galexy, etc.
What is linguistic division of labor? Rely on others for "real" meaning
Which "definition" didn't give meaning but instead picked out a referent? Ostentsive
What is a counterexample? A possible situation where the premises are true but the conclusion could be false
What is reference? What fits the definition
What kind of inference is: "Every F so far has been G so there's something in the Fs making them Gs" Abductive inference
A counterexample to an argument's validity is a possible situation where the arguments... Conclusion is false and premises are true
Which theory of meaning & reference define terms involved in an argument? Old Theory
What makes an argument invalid? If there is a counterexample
What is the strongest inference and why? Deductively valid because it is impossible for premises to be true & conclusion to be false
What does invalidity with counterexamples show? True premises and false conclusion
"Priority of reference over meaning" refers to which theory? New Theory
What is "truth-valuable"? What is true or false
What are "Twin-Earth" examples supposed to show? Meaning doesn't determine reference
What do foundationalists worry about? Avoiding falsehood
Created by: Mariahdulinayan