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Ped-Family Theory

Definitions of Family: Biological consanguineous (related genetically)
Definitions of Family: Affinal by marriage or law
Definitions of Family: family of Origin the family into which we are born
New definitions: Broader institution where a group of individuals, related through biology or enduring commitments, representing various generations, genders & roles, participates in activities involving mutual socialization, nurturance & emotional commitment
The Best Definition of Family -A family is who they say they are! -It is individual and affected by many ideas and values.
Family Systems Theory -Emphasizes interaction b/w the members of the family. -The family is a whole w/ each individual as a part of the whole. -When one is affected, all other are affected. -Therefore, pediatric nurses always view the family as their patient.
Family Systems Theory -adaptable. -Feed back and needs initiates change. Boundaries between the environment and the family: an open boundary invites new ideas and help, and a closed boundary resists change by viewing it as threatening,
Family Stress Theory -Explains how families react and adapt to stressors. -Stressors may be predictable (parenthood) or unpredictable (illness). -Stressors may be cumulative or chronic. -When these stressors overwhelm the families ability to cope: crisis
Family Stress Theory -Resiliency model of family stress includes adjustment and adaptation which may not be pathologic.
Resilience a concept where a family is able to adapt by making structural and system changes.
Developmental Theory -Emphasizes developmental stages as psychosocial stages of the whole family (8 stages). -Addresses changes over time based on predictable changes in structure, function, and roles.
Developmental Theory -New life cycle norms were created to encompass a change in course (ie divorce) The family may then begins the stages of single parent family stages.
Structural-Functional • Sociological perspective • The family is the social system with members who have specific roles and functions. • Goal: equilibrium between complementary roles (ie. Mother-child; mother-mother-in-law)
Structural-Functional: functions Affective meet the psychological needs.
Structural-Functional: functions Socialization help children become productive members of society
Structural-Functional: functions Reproductive ensure family survival
Structural-Functional: functions Economic allocate sufficient resources
Structural-Functional: functions Health Care provision of physical necessities including food and shelter
Family Structure
 IMPORTANT: there is no one family structure that is optimal.
Family Structure
 -traditional nuclear family & nuclear family -Blended Family & Binuclear Family -Extended Family & Grandparent Families -Single parent Family -Gay and lesbian family -Polygamous Family -Communal family
Traditional Nuclear Family Married male and female and their biological offspring.
Nuclear Families Two parents and their children who may encompass biological, step, half and adopted children. The parents are not necessarily legally married or opposite sexes.
Blended (The Brady Bunch) Children from each parent are not biologically related to each other, but live together as step siblings.
Binuclear Families The biological parents of the children are divorced and live in different households. Both bio parents have equal custody and the child has two homes
Extended families Has at least one parent, one or more children and one or more other members other than parent or child (ie. Grandmother living with them)
Grandparent families g. parents raise the children with or without help from parents.
Single Parent Families • Single-parent with one or more children. • become a choice. • In the past it was death, divorce, desertion or unplanned pregnancy. • Women and men are becoming single parents by choice and men are awarded custody more often than in the past.
Gay and Lesbian Families • Two people of the same sex in an intimate relationship who become parents through adoption, surrogacy and/or alternative insemination; and /or • One or both partner brings a child into the relationship from an ex-relationship
Polygyny One husband with many wives (polygyny); either a group of related women ie. sisters (sororal) or unrelated women (non-sororal).
Polyandry One wife with many husbands (rare).
Polyamory married but couple allow for other relationships based in love.
Polygamy Not legal in the USA but is legal and sanctioned in many other countries.
Communal Families • Communities of people sharing cooperatively without monetary exchange. • Mother and child bond is close during infancy and early childhood, then “it takes a village”, although primary parents take ultimate responsibility for health and well-being.
Family Roles • Roles are prescribed guidelines for behavior set by the culture.
Roles include and are modified by: • Parental Roles • Role learning • Family Size and configuration
Parental Roles • Prescribe appropriate: sexual behavior, childrearing responsibilities, traditions, and standards. • Conflict arises when these roles are not fulfilled according to the expectations of society, extended family, culture and religion.
Parental Roles • Each person is affected by their socialization process. • Over the years roles have changed for economic and liberation movements.
Parental Roles -Fathers are taking a more active role in child rearing. Mother often have careers. -This is often seen in middle and upper class. In lower SES, segregation of roles are split along traditional lines.
Role Learning • The determinates of success in parenting have been consistent over the years amid much social change. They are: • 1) parental personality and psychological well-being • 2) contextual support systems • 3) child characteristics
Role Learning • Roles are transmitted through parents, peers and authority figures. • Children learn from parents and culture • Birth order affects roles. • Children learn appropriate behaviors according to feedback.
Family Size and Configuration • Parenting roles and child expectations depends upon the family size. • Children in large families are generally more adaptable and cooperative. Older sibs provide discipline.
Family Size and Configuration • Age differences mean more than gender differences. In general, the closer in age, the more influence they have upon each other.
Family Size and Configuration • The primary reason for having another child is childhood companionship for the first child. • Sibs exert power, teach about exchange, services, develop negotiation skills. • Oldest sibs pioneer a learning path with their parents.
Family Size and Configuration Only children have traditional been thought of as disadvantaged: selfish, spoiled, dependant, and lonely. NOT true in review of the research. They do better on cognitive tests, are more mature and socially sensitive.
Family Size and Configuration Even with twins (fraternal), one of the pair will be more dominant, assertive and outgoing. Identical twins have more unison actions and often alternate leadership.
Limit Setting and Discipline • Guidelines: • 1) Consistency • 2) Timing: asap • 3) Commitment to whole time • 4) Unity: both parents agree (mostly)
Limit Setting and Discipline • 5) Flexibility: age appropriate • 6) Planning: as much as possible • 7) Behavior–oriented: i.e. behavior is bad not child • 8) Privacy: as much as possible • 9)Termination: Child has a clean slate when done
Adoption • Motivation: must be “emotionally healthy” for both child and parent(s). • Available children • Delays, difficulty and disappointment. • Preparation: age of the child • Bonding • Sharing the truth
Created by: Yosiaja