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UB PGY 300


What is the PNS? The nerves that leave the central region to go to other structures.
What is the CNS? The nervous system region that is contained in the skull and vertebral column made up of the brain and spinal cord.
What do the Tonic Receptors do? They slowly adapt and respond during the entire stimulus.(Sustained)
What do the Phasic Receptors do? They rapidly adapt to stimulus then turn off. Then fire again when the stimulus turns off.(Transiat)
What is the Central Canal? It is the gray matter stretching down the spinal cord. It is where the cerebrospinal fluid runs through.
What does the Basal Ganglia do? What disease is involved with it? It is involved in motor movement-Parkinson's disease is associated with damage to it.
What is the Corpus Callosum? It is between the two hemispheres in the brain where the nerve fibers are located used during crossover.
What is the Blood Brain Barrier? It protects the brain from chemicals in the blood from getting into the brain.
What are ascending tracts? They carry sensory information to the brain.It is a part of the white matter.
What are descending tracts? They carry commands to motor neurons. It is a part of the white matter.
What does convergence do? It increases the receptove field, but decreases in resolution.
What happens when convergence occurs? Many presynaptic neurons converge to influence a smaller number of postsynaptic neurons.
What makes up the neuron? Dendrites, Soma, Axon, and the Synapse.
In convergence when one signal is sent to the brain what happens? Loose resolution, input from many cells, very sensitive to stimuli, sums together cannot tell which presynaptic neuron was stimulated, and it gives a bigger response.
What happens when two siganls are sent to the brain. It is easily understood where the stimulus was on the presynaptic neuron. There is an increase in resolutuion and sensitivity is decreased.
What is Habituation? Cell is more excitable, cell can depolarize a little because K+ channels are closed this allows more Ca++ in. There now can also be more synaptic transmission.
What three parts of the brain are apart of the Limbic system? Thalmus, Hippocampus, and Amygdala
What does the Thalmus do as a part of the Limbic system? Almost all sensory information passes through it except the olfactory system.
What does the Hippocampus do as a part of the Limbic System? It is the part of the brain where learning and conversion occurs between short term memory and long term memory.
What does the Amygdala do as a part of the Limbic System? This is where emotion, fearful, and painful emotional events are stored.
What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging? or MRI? It is imaging of magnetic fields of water associated with different substances such as lipids. The image is not degradable by bone. Water molecules can flip then the magnet is turned off and then the molecules fall back into place.
What is the Hypothalmus? It keeps homeostasis. ex.) makes sure body has enough water, food, is body hungry? It controls the endocrine system. It also imfluences cardiovascular control center in medulla oblongata.
What is the Cerebrospinal fluid? It's found within the brain and spinal cord. It is a cushion for brian and protects it from trauma. It goes into ventricles and gives nutrients and takes away the waste from nerve cells.
What is a spinal tap? It is the removal of fluid from the spinal cord with a needle.
What is temporal Summation? It is when there is a rapid fire from the presymnatic cells one right after another and so on. the symnatic cells will summate all of them together to create a large action potentia.
What is the Choroid Plexus? It makes and exchanges cerebrospinal fluid. The exchange is between the blood supply and cerebrospinal fluid.
What are the meninges? pia matter, dura matter, and arachnoid membrane. They protect the brain and spinal cord, they are layers of cushion for the brain and protect delicate neural tissue.
What are two possibilities for nerves? One Neuron goes to all three receptive fields. and the second way is that one neuron will only connect with one receptive field.
What is a receptive field? There are receptive fields of three primary sensory neurons that overlap. There are primary sensory neurons, and there are secondary sensory neurons that have large receptive fields.
What is a spinal reflex? It initiates a response without input from the brain. it uses an interneuron to commant the muscle, gland, etc. to do something.
What does lateral inhibition do? The lateral inhibiton corrects bluring.
How is Lateral Inhibiton done. when a (pin) is pricked onto skin. the area that is under pin is most effected.The primary neuron response is prop. to the stimulus strength. The pathways closest to stimulus inhibits neighbors. L.I. of nerurons enhances where stimulus actually came from.
What are the three different kinds of receptors? Simple receptors( free nerve endings) complex neural receptors (modified nerve endings) and specialized receptors.
What is an exapmle of Habituation? Aplysia. stimulate animal with water pick. oulls in soft tissue. repeat animal with eventaully learn not to respond. hit animalk on head and it again is sensative to stimulation.
What is postsynaptic summation? three excitory neurons fire.seperatly there graded potential is below threshold. Graded potentails arrive at trigger zone and together sum and create suprathreshold signal. action potential is generated.
How do you get no summation of graded potentials? Two graded potentials that are too far apart will not be summed together and be below threshold thus not creating and action potential.
How does summation create an action potential? If two subthreshold potentials arrive at the trigger zone within a short period of time they may sum together and create and action potential.
What are the two Glutamate receptors? AMPA and NMDA
What is AMPA as a Glutamate receptor? It works very well, quickly and briefly and they work on their own.
Neurocrines: Ach Nicotinic(skeletal) postganglionic. sumpathetic and parasympathetic. and Muscarnic(g protien cupple receptor. sympathetic
Neurocrines: Norepinephrine, Dopamine, Seratonin,Glutamate, glycerine,GABA. --,parkinson's disease-basil ganglia,depression,main excetory of brain and spinal cord,main inhibitory of neurotransmitters of spinal cord,main inhibitory of the neurotransmitters of the brain.
What is a divergent pathway? One presynaptic neuron branches to affect a large number of postsynaptic neurons.
What is a convergent pathway? One cell is getting an input from many cells. Two reasons: 1.) needs all of the cells to be enough to stimulate it. 2.) cell is very sensitive to any of its inputs to stimulate it.
What is the amplification in metatrobic receptors? activates lots, and has a large number of products. activating one receptor can give lots of products as a result.
What are the two types of membrane receptors theat are activated by neurotransmitters? Chemically gated ion channels and g-protien coupled receptors.
What are three ways that neurotransmitters are recycled? Glial Cells(transport), enzymes (Ach) breaks down neurotransmitters, and they can diffuse into the blood.
What are Voltage-Gated Calcium channels? They are open when it is at -55mV and is more positive in the cell. It alters protien activity, expcytosis, and movement.
What are the steps taken for a synapse? action potential depolar.axon terminal->depolar.opens v.g. Ca++channels and Ca++enters cell->Ca++in trigger exocytosis synaptic vesicle contents->Neuro.diffuse across synaptic cleft, binds with receptor on post.cell.->Neuro.binding gives resp.in post.cell
What happens at a neurotransmitter? Chemicals secreted by neurons that diffuse across a small gap to the target cell. Neurons use electrical signals as well.
What is Hyperkalemia? increase bloof K+ concentration. membrance is closer to threshold.
What is Hypokalemia? There is a decrease in the bloods K+ concentration.Hyperpolarizes membrane. the membrane is farther aways from threshold.
What the threshold in mV? -70mV
What are cones? Found in eye. They are not as sensitive to light
What are rods? They are dim light vision, no color vision only black and white, sensitivity converges onto cell, wouldnt be able to read newspaper with just rods.
What is the Acetylcholine Receptor(Ach)? Na+ rushes out, voltage change (-15mV)
What does absolute mean? the cell is unresponsive channels are closed and they are resetting.
What does relative mean? They are harder to produce action potentials. they need a strong stimulus.
What are Carriers that are uniport? They transport only one kind of substrate.
What the two co-transport carriers? symport carriers and antiport carriers.
what is the Co-transport carriers- symport carriers 2 or more substrates in the same direction across the membrane.
what is the Co-transport carriers- antiport carriers 2 or more substrates going in opposite directions againist the concentration gradient.
What are the two types of ways that ions are transported across the membrane? open channel, and carriers.
What are open channels? They are open on both sides like a tunnel. they move ions faster, they may be selective but cannot choose how much move through them.
What are carriers? They are never open on both sides, they move ions slower, and they cannot work againist the concentration gradient.
What is faciliated diffusion? they are channels that uses transport protiens they are passive diffusion to equilibrum. ions cross until they reach equilibrum. (to+60mV)
What is an example of a carrier? The sodium potassium ATPase pump.
What does depolarization mean? vm decreases (smaller space) vm= membrance potential difference
What does hyperpolarization mean? vm increases (larger space) vm= membrance potential difference
What does membrane permeability mean? there is a lipid bilayer. fats(cholesterol) some thing go through well like oxygen. Molecular size can be a determining factor and so could lipid solubility level.
What is the cell membrane? It is there for the cell to have structure and support. The Barrier isolates the cell(impermeable) both chemically and physicall, it also regulates exchange(semipermeable), and it is also used for cell communication.
What us the parasympathetic vagus nerve efferents? preganglia nerve that is trememsously extensive. in the GUT the vagus nerve controls secretion, digestion, and absorbtion. (the 1st nerve travels a long dtstance)
How does a carrier work? Passage is opened to one side only-> the transition state with both sides closed->then the passage opens to other side.
What are the four efferent pathways? 1.)Somatic motor pathway 2.)Parasympathetic pathway 3.)sympathetic pathway 4.)Adrenal sympathetic pathway
What does sympathetic mean? the preganglion is close to the spinal cord. it travels a short distance and ends at ganglion. after ganglion travels a long distance to some organ, intestine, etc.
What is the autonomic postganglionic synapse? varicosities, no cleft, impact: large area,slow activity, and long duration.
What is the Adrenal galnd: modified sympathetic ganglion? spinal cord-> preganglion->ADRENAL MEDULA-> Ach->postganglion-> blood vessel.
What is the T-Tubule system? T-tubule brings action potentials into interior of muscle fibers and tells Ca+ to be released.
What is an actin chain? Tropomysin:wants to bind to actin at rest. much be moved out of the way when initiation occurs. Troponin Nebulin: activated by Ca+(pulls) tropomysin out of the way so contraction can occur.
What is a Voluntary movement? in the corticospinal tract(descending tract) consists of UMN. the motor complex- corssoveer of axons in Medulla.
What does Parasympathetic mean? Rest and digest
What does Sympathetic mean? Fight or flight
What is the Enteric System? "Second Brain" and the "Gut's Brain" common names. there are 100 million neurons. there are also two sets of nerve cells. 1.) Myentic plexus-motility and 2.) Submuscosal plexus-secretion.
explain the parasympathetic preganglion. the first nerve leaves the CNS travels a long distance to reach ganglion close to organ, nerve, etc. second nerve very short.
What does anatonistic muscles mean? extensors and flexors. ex.) Flexion: tricep muscle relaxes and Bicep muscle flexes(flexor).Extention: Tricep muscle contracts(extensor) and the bicep muscle relaxes.
What does Mechanical Transduction mean? Mechanically gates chanels physically opened by stretching. cilia are lined up in size. little linkage at tip of cilia(protien bridge or tip link) connected to a channel.
Skeletal muscle is also called? Striaded muscle.
What is an example of Cardiac Muscle? The heart.
What is an example of smooth muscle? glands, gut
What is presynaptic inhibition? a modulatory neuron synapses on one collateral of the presynaptic neuron and selectively inhibits one target. it can choose how many synapses to send .
What does afferent mean? Connects with nerve cells output. signal goes out ventral root
What does efferent mean? Sends motor info to rest of the body.
What is the Gating Theory of Pain? rub skin where it burns by activating non pain stimulus fibers.(AB)
What does positron emission tomography or PET mean? Radioactive material is put into body made to disappear after a few seconds has short half life.
What is an electroencephallography or (EEG)? Put onto scalp. hard to detect 1 or 2 but can detect lots of nerve cells doing sam thing. used in sleep therapy and to localize seizure activity.
Where are the Glial Cells found? PNS, and CNS
Voltage of a Neuron Resting voltage(-70mV)->excitation(+) OR -> inhibibituation (-)
Potential of a neuron resting voltage(-70mV)->deploarization->+->Na+into cell. OR hyperpolarization-> - ->Cl- into cell and K+ leaves cell.
Created by: Tiger3