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Anatomy flash card

Simple Squamous epithelium Mesothelium, Endothelium Blood Vessel, Lung
Simple cuboidal epithelium Thyroid Follicles, Tubule of Kidney, Surface of ovary Function: Secretion and absorption
Simple columnar epithelium Stomach-Rectum, Uterine Gland Gall bladder Function: Secretion and absorption
Psedostratified columnar epithelium Ducts-Male reproduction Respiratory tract Trachea Function: Secretion and absorption and protection
Stratified squamous epithelium Esophagus, Pharynx, Vagina, Anal Canal, Mouth (Non-Keratinized) Skin (Keratinized) Function: Abosorption and protection
Stratified cuboidal epithelium Sweat gland,s ducts of exocrine glands Function: Protection and limited secretion and absorption
Stratified columnar epithelium Salivary ducts Function: Protection and secretion
Transitional epithelium Urinary tract (bladder) Function: Stretch
Cilia Respiratory epithelium Fallopian tube
Microvilli Small intestine, Gall bladder, kidney
Stereocilia Epididymis, Vas deferens, Inner ear
Difference between Basement memebrane and basal lamina Basement membrane: Lamina rara, Lamina densa, Lamina reticularis Basal lamina: Lamina rara and lamina densa
Loose connective tissue Surrounds: Muscles, nerves, blood vessels Contains more cells
Regular Dense connective tissue Tendons, Ligaments, cornea Function: Strong attachment, withstands pulling
Irregular Dense connective tissue Found in dermis of skin Function: provides tensile strength in many direction
Collagen Fibers Most abundant fibers Very strong and resist pulling forces
4 types of collagen 1. Bones, tendons, ligaments 2. Cartilages 3. Blood vessels, liver, lymphoid organs 4. Basement membrane
Reticular fibers Composed of type 3 collagen Support the walls of blood vessels Remove worn-out blood cells in spleen. Flexible and able to stretch
Elastic Fibers Enable tissues to stretch and distend Thinner than collagen Fibers are interwoven with collagen- prevent tearing
Ground substance Proteoglycans, Hyaluronic acids Proteoglycan-GAGs-trap H20 making the ground substance more jelly like. Hyaluronic acid- Viscous, slippery substance that binds cells together. Helps maintain the shape
Ground substance Function: Glue-binds cells to fibers Lubricant-allows ease of motion Barrier-physical prevention of bacteria and microorganisms.
Fibroblasts Fixed. Synthesize: Collage, elastin, reticular fibers, ground substance Involve wound repair
Macrophages Derived from monocytes in bone marrow Ingestion and degradation of foreign matter. Stimulation of the immune response by immune presentation
Mast Cell Oval, filled with basophillic granules- Produce histamin Absents from brain and spinal cord and spleen.
Lymphocytes T-lymphocytes-Cell-mediated B-lymphocytes-Production of antibodies
Plasma cells Derived from B-lymphocytes. Lives 10-30 days Clock face nucleus. Synthesis of antibodies.
Eosinophilis, Monocytes and Neutrophils Rapidly migrated from blood to connective tissue. Injury and inflammation An acute inflammatory reaction
Basophils Release of histamine from basophil granules. Enhances vascular response in insect bites
3 types of cartilage Hyaline Elastic Fibro-cartilage
Hyaline Cartilage Homogenous matrix Lacunae-Spaces throughout matrix Matrix-collagen fibers (type 2) and ground substance Function: Provides smooth surface for movement, flexibility and support
Hyaline Cartilage Location Nose, tracheal, bronchial rings Larygeal cartilages, costal cartilages, articular surfaces, epiphyseal growth plate
Perichondrium dense connective tissue inner cellular layer-give rise to cartilage outer fibrous layer-stem cell
Chondrocytes Matured chondroblasts located in lacunae. Deeper-Mitotic division-isogenous groups-lengthening of cartilage
Elastic Cartilage Elastin present in matrix Gives cartilage-elasticity and pliability and resilience. Strength and shape All have perichondrium but does not calcify
Elastic cartilage-location External ear, epiglottis, larynx.
Fibrocartilage consists of chondrocytes and territorial matrix combined with dense connective tissue. Lack perrichondrium Function: support and joining structure. Strength and rigidity Storngest of the three types
Fibrocartilage-location Intervertebral discs symphysis pubis articular discs of sternoclavicular and temperomandibular joints, menisci of knee joint
Bone Consists of type 1 collagen and ground substances
Bone cell types Osteoprogenitor cells Osteoblasts Osteocytes Osteoclasts
Long Bones Main components of limbs -femur, humerus, radius, ulna, tibia and fibula Support body frame, strength
Short Bones Metacarpals of hands and metatarsals of feet. Cube shaped facilitate movement; transfer forces
Flat Bones Cranial bones, scapula, ribs, hips Provide broad surfaces for muscle attachment (protection)
Irregular bones Vertebra, carpals, and tarsals. Irregular shape For attachment of other structures
Yellow marrow Central cavities Fat
Red marrow Ends of long bones. responsible for the formation of blood cells and platelets
Diaphysis Shaft of the long bone. Hard and compact
Epiphysis Sponge like and is covered by shell of harder bone.
Epiphyseal growth plate The place where the diaphysis and epuphysis meet
Axial division Bones in the centre of the body Skull, vertebral column, hyoid bone, ribs and stermum (excluding clavicle)
Appendicular division Appendage.
Joints- classification Fibrous Cartilaginous synovia OR synarthrosis-immovable amphaiarthrosis-slightly movable diarthrosis - freely movable
Fibrous joints 1.Sutures 2.Syndesmoses 3.gomphosis
Cartilaginous 1. Synchondroses-primary: transitional stages of growth 2. Symphyses-secondary: Hyaline covered bones permanet fibrocartilage between
Synovial joints 1. Plannar 2. Hinge 3. Pivot 4. Condyloid 5. Saddle 6. Ball and socket
Hinge Allows one plane movement (Uniaxial) Flexion and extension
Ball and socket Triaxial Flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and rotation
Pivot Uniaxial rotation
Planar (Gliding) Biaxial Back-forth, side to side movement
Saddle Biaxial Flexion and extension abduction and adduction
Condyloid Biaxial Flexion and extension Abductuon and addction
Skeletal Muscle Each cell is called muscle fiber Plasma membrane-sarcolemma
Epimysium Sheath of dense connective tissue Carry major nerves and blood supply
Perimysium Thicker connective tissue surrounding a group of fibers Forms bundle or fascicle Contains larger blood vessels
Endomysium Delicate layer of reticular fibers contains only finest capillaries and nerves
I-band Light, Actin (Thin)
A-band Dark-both Actin and myosin (Thin and thick)
Z-line Region between two-sacromere
Intercalated discs Major site of attachment between cardiac cells. 2 conjunctions gap junction and desmosomes
Smooth Muscle Elongate, fusiform cells organized into bundles or sheets
Skin layers Epidermis, dermis and hypodermis
Epidermis outermost layer Keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
Epidermis cell types 1.Keratinocytes 2. Melanocytes 3. Langerhans's cells 4. Merkel cells
Epidermis layers 1. Stratum Baslae 2. Stratum Spinosum 3. Stratum Granulosum 4. Stratum lucidum 5. Stratum Corneum
Dermis Richly in innervated and vascularized Hair follicles, sweat glands, oil glands, lymphatic vessels, and sensory receptors
Dermis- layers 1.Papillary layer 2.Reticular layer
Function of the integument 1. Chemical barriers 2. Biological barriers 3. Physical barriers 4. Temperature regulation 5. Cutaneous sensation 6. Metabolic functions 7. Blood reservoir 8. Excretion
Burns 1 degree-only epidermiss 2 degree-epidermis and upper dermis-blisters 3 degree-full thickness. Not painful.
Created by: ohnobaby