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CHF201 Chapter 2 notes

Psychosexual theory of development. (Freud) o Infantile sexuality occurs in three stages and results in an essentially fixed personality by age five.
Stages of psychosexual theory  Oral  Anal  Phallic  Sexual Latency  Genital Stage (through adulthood
ID source of unconscious impulses toward fulfillment of our needs.
EGO mediator between unbridled demands of the id and limits imposed by real world. Operates according to reality principle.
SUPEREGO - relentless conscience that forms as children begin to identify with their parents' moral standards
Erickson Psychosocial theory of human development from infant to adult, it varied from Freud
Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)=Babies learn either to trust or mistrust that others will care for their basic needs
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1-3)=Children learn to be self-sufficient in many activities (toileting, feeding, walking, talking) or to doubt their own abilities.
Initiative vs. Guilt Children want to do adult like activities, sometimes overstepping the limits set by parents and feeling guilty
Industry vs. Inferiority (7-11)=Children learn to be competent and productive or feel inferior and unable to do anything well
Identity vs. Role Diffusion (Adolescence)="Who Am I?" Establish sexual, ethnic, and career identities or remain confused.
Intimacy vs. Isolation (Adulthood)=Seek companionship & love with another or become isolated from others
Generativity vs. Stagnation productive, meaningful work & raise a family or become stagnant or inactive
Integrity vs. Despair Try to make sense out of life or despair at goals never reached.
Stage Theorists Freud / Erickson
Classical Learning Theory Unconditioned Stimulus --->Unconditioned Response Neutral Stimulus ----> No Response Unconditioned Stim + Neutral Stim --->Unconditioned Resp. Conditioned Stimulus --->Conditioned Response.
Operant Conditioning Antecedents--->Give instruction in Spanish, then English. Instruction does not automatically result in response. Have to learn /  Consequences--->Reinforcers are stimuli that increase probability of future responses.
Positive / Negative reinforcement self explanatory
Continuous vs. Intermittent Time Based - Fixed or Variable Response Based - Fixed or Variable
Deprivation vs. Satiation Self explanatory
Immediacy vs. Delay Self explanatory
General vs. Specific Self explanatory
Primary vs. Secondary or Conditioned (reward based on accomplishment)
Contingent vs. Non contingent Reward given only if learning act done successfully
Shaping operant conditioning in which the increasingly accurate approximations of a desired response are reinforced
Modeling process whereby people pattern their behavior after that of specific others
Self-efficacy one's feelings of competency, capability, and effectiveness
Piaget: Sensorimotor Infant uses senses and motor abilities. Begins with reflexes and ends with complex coordination of sensory-motor skills.
Piaget: Preoperational Child uses symbolic thinking including language to understand the world
Piaget: Concrete Operations Understands and applies logical principles to help interpret specific experiences or perceptions
Piaget: Formal Operations Able to think about abstractions and hypothetical concepts.
cognitive equilibrium (Piaget) make sense of conflicting experiences and perceptions. Form mental concepts or schemas and try to fit experiences to them
Cognitive equilibrium - Organization People organize thoughts to make sense of them, separating important from unimportant and establishing links between thoughts
Cognitive equilibrium - Adaptation When experiences come to people, they must adapt the experience to their schema. Assimilation + Accommodation
Social Cultural Theory - Vygotsky Cognitive competencies result from the interaction between children and more mature members of society in what has been called apprenticeship in thinking
Guided participation tutors work directly with learners
Zone of proximal development skills, knowledge, and understanding that an individual cannot yet perform on his or her own but could learn with guidance
EPIGENETIC SYSTEMS THEORY emphasizes the interaction between genes and the environment
Genotype what we inherit genetically
Phenotype what is expressed
Created by: spicywafflefries