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Human Bio. chapt. 2

Human Bio. Test 1.

What are the 6 functions of a cell?! 1. Basic Unit of Life 2. Protection and Support 3. Movement 4. Communication 5. Cell Metabolism and Energy Release 6. Inheritance
What are organelles?! Specialized structures within cells performing specific functions.
What are Cell Membrane/Plasma Membrane?! It is the outermost component of a cell. It encloses they cytoplasm and forms the boundary between material inside the cell and material outside of it.
What is and Extracellular Substance?! The substances outside the cell.
What is the Intracellular Substance?! The substance inside the cell.
What is a Mosaic Model?! They are studies of the arrangement of molecules in the cell membrane.
What is the Nucleus?! A large organelle usually located near the center of the cell.
What is the Nucleolus?! It is the number from on to four per nucleus.
What are Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum?! A series of membranes that extends from the outer nuclear membrane into the cytoplasm and have ribosomes attached to it.
What are Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum?! A site for lipid synthesis in cells. Participates in detoxification of chemicals within the cell. Stores calcium ions.
What is the Golgi Apparatus?! Closely packed stacks of curved, membrane-bound sacs. It collects, modifies, packages, and distributes proteins and lipids manufactured by the Endoplasmic Reticulum.
What are Lysosomes?! Membrane-bound vesicles formed from the Golgi apparatus. Containing a variety of enzymes that function as intracellular digestive systems.
What is Mitochondrion?! Small, bean-shaped or rod-shaped organelles with inner and outer membranes separated by space.
What are Microtubules?! Hollow structures formed from protein subunits that perform a variety of roles; helping to provide support to the cytoplasm of cells, assisting in the process of cell devision, and forming essential components of certain organelles such as cilia and flage
What is Cilia?! They project from the surface of cells, are capable of moving, and vary in number from none to thousands per cell. They have a cylindrical shape, contain specialized microtubules, and are enclosed by the cell membrane.
What is the Flagella?! They have a structure similar to that of cilia but are much longer, and usually occur only one per cell. Sperm cells each have one flagellum, which functions to propel the sperm cell.
What is Microvilli?! They are specialized extensions of the cell membrane that are supported by microfilaments, but they do not actively move like cilia and flagella.
What are Ribosomes?! The organelles where proteins are produced.
What is the Cytoskeleton?! The collection of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate Filaments that support the cytoplasm and organelles; also involved with cell movements.
What are the 4 ways molecules can pass through the cell membrane?! 1. Directly through the phospholipid membrane. 2. Membrane Channels. 3. Carrier molecules. 4. Vesicles.
What is a solution?! A solid, liquid, or gas that consists of one or more substances called solutes.
What are Solutes?! Substance that is dissolved in the predominant solid, liquid or gas inside a solution.
What is a solvent?! a predominant solid, liquid or gas.
What is diffusion?! A product of the constant random motion of all solutes in a solution.
What is a Concentration Gradient?! A measure of the difference in the concentration of a solute in a solvent between two points.
What is Osmosis?! The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane, such as the cell membrane, from a region of higher water concentration to one of ower water concentration.
What is Osmotic Pressure?! The force required to prevent the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane.
Created by: mariaa