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Biology chapter 2

Cell structure and function

what are the 6 functions of cells 1. basic unit of life 2. protection and support 3. movement 4. communication 5. cell metabolism and energy release 6. inheritance
what are organelles specialized part of a cell performing one or more specific function
what are cell membranes/ plasma membranes outermost component of a cell. encloses cytoplasma and forms the boundary between material inside the cell and material outside it.
what are extracellular substances? substances outside the cell
what are intracellular substances substances inside the cell
what are mosaic models model used to show the structure and function of the cell membrane
what is a nucleus usually near the center of the cell. contains DNA, nucleoli. site of ribosome and mRNA synthesis.
what is a Rough endoplasmic Reticulum in cytoplasm. many ribosomes attached to ER. site of protein synthesis
what are Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulums in cytoplasm. site of lipid synthesis
what is a Golgi Apparatus in cytoplasm. modifies protein structures and packages proteins in secretory vesicles.
what is a Lysosomes in cytoplasm. contains enzymes that digest material taken into the cell.
what is a mitochondrion in cytoplasm. site of aerobic respiration and the major site of ATP synthesis
what is a microtubules in cytoplasm. supports cytoplasm. assists in cell division and forms components of cilia and flagella.
what is a cilia on cell surface with many on each cell. cilia move substances over surface of certain cells
what is a flagella on sperm cell surface with one per cell. propels the sperm cells
what is a microvilli extensions of cell surface with many on each cell. increase surface area of certain cells.
what is a ribosomes organelles where proteins are produced
what is a cytoskeleton consists of proteins that support the cell, hold organelles in place and enable the cell ot change shape.
what are four ways molecules can pass through the cell membrane 1. moves through phospholipids membrane 2. carrier molecules brings things in/out 3. through the membrane channels 4. through vesicles
what is a solution solid, liquid, or gas consisted of one or more substances
what are solutes substances that are dissolved
what is a solvent the substance that does the dissolving
what is diffusion movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
what is the concentration gradient measure of the difference in the concentration of solute in a solvent
what is osmosis process by which water molecules diffuse across a cell membrane from high concentration to low concentration
what is osmotic pressure
what is hypotonic low solute concentration inside of a cell
what is isotonic concentration of solutes is equal both inside and outside of the cell
what is hypertonic high solute concentration inside of the cell
what is faciliated diffusion larger molecules use carrier protein to help them pass through the cell membrane
what is active transport transports that require energy
what is the sodium potassium pump pump used to move sodium and potassium ions from areas of low concentration to high concentration
Created by: jake fetters