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H. Bio 1

Cell Structure and Function, movement, and matabolism

6 functions of the cell Basic unit of life, protection and support, movement, communication, cell metabolism, and energy release, inheritance
cell membrane outermost component of the cell, is a wall
extracellular substance substance outside the cell
intercellular substance substance in the cell
mosaic model arrangement of molecules in the cell, cell membrane moves like bobbers on water
nucleus brain of cell, DNA
nucleolus site of ribosomal RNA and ribosomal protein synthesis
rough ER site of Protein synthesis
Smooth ER Site of lipid synthesis
Golgi Apparatus modifies protien structure and packages protiens in secretory vesicles
lysosomes contains enzymes that digest material taken into the cell
mitochondrion site of aerobic resporation and the major site of ATP synthesis
Microtubuals holds up the cell
cilia moves substances over surface of cell
flagella on sperm cell surface with one per cell
microvilli extensions of cell surface with many on cell, increase surface area of certain cells
ribosomes cytoplasmic organelle were protein synthesis occurs
cytoskeleton consists of proteins that support the cell, enable the cell to change shape
four ways molecules pass through cell membrane through phospholipid membrane, membrane channels, carrier molecules, and vesicles
solution consists of one or more substances
solutes dissolves into original, added to first substance
solvent substance that the solute is dissolved into, first substance that 2nd is added to, usually larger
diffusion substance spreads throughout evenly
concentration gradient the measure of the difference in the concentration of a solute in a solvent between two points
osmosis through membrane, ex. air through screen
osmotic pressure the force required to prevent the movement of water across a selective premeable membrane
hypotonic solution usually has a higher of solutes and a lower concentration of water than cytoplasm in the cell
Facilitated Diffusion a mediated transport process that moves substances into or out of cells from a higher or a lower concentration
Active Transport a carrier-meiated process that moves substances from regions of a lower concentration to ones of higher concentration against the gradient
Sodium Potassium Pump moves sodium ions out of cells and potassium ions into the cell
endocytosis the cell bring in food and water
exocytosis the cell getting rid of wastes and other bad things
glycolysis the breakdown of sugars by a series of chemical reactions within the cytoplasm of a cell
aerobic respiration breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and approximately 38 ATP molecules
anaerobic respiration breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen to produce lactic acid and two ATP molecules
organelles "little ograns" in the cell
Created by: mwwojahn