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A&P 1st unit

negative feedback when gets to normal it stops
positive feedback keeps going & going eventually stops
thoracic cavity is divided into pleural, pericardial, & mediastinum
sagittal divides R & L
frontal divides A & P
transverse or horizontal divides S & I
3 states of matter solid, liquid, & gas
kinetic energy energy of motion
potential energy stored energy
chemical energy energy stored in chemical bonds
electrical energy results from the movement of charged particles
mechanical energy energy directly involved with moving matter
radiant energy energy that travels in waves
elements all the atoms with the same atomic #
4 elements that make up most of body Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, & Nitrogen
molecule a combination of 2 or more atoms
molecule of a compound 2 or more atoms of different elements combine
solution dissolves in solvent ex: oxygen in blood
colloid solute is bigger & doesn't tend to be dissolved ex: cytoplasm, cytosol
suspension particles so large it separates ex: sand & water, blood
solute substance being dissolved
solvent dissolves in this substance
Ionic bonds chemical bonds that form between 2 atoms that transfer 1 or more electrons from 1 atom to the other
Covalent bond form when electrons are shared between 2 atoms
Hydrogen bonds weak attractions that form between partially charged atoms found in polar molecules; Surface tension is due to hydrogen bonds between water molecules.
Cation electron donor carrying a net positive charge d/t loss of electron
anion electron acceptor carrying a net negative charge d/t an extra electron
levels of organization in Human organisms small to big cell-tissue-organ-organ system-organism
4 types of tissues epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
Anatomy the study of the structure of the body term means to dissect or anatomize
Chemistry study of matter
matter is anything that occupies space & has mass
energy capacity to perform work & it exists in 2 work capacities
elements all atoms with the same atomic number
mixtures substances made of 2 or more components mixed physically
crystals large structures of cations & anion held together by ionic bonds
nonpolar molecules share their electrons evenly between two atoms
polar molecules electrons spend more time around one atom thus providing that atom with a partial negative charge while the other atom takes on a partial positive charge
Chemical Equations A chemical equation described what happens in a reaction
Chemical reactions denote the kinds and number of reactants; the chemical composition of the products; and the relative proportion of each reactant and product, if balanced.
Factors Influencing the Rate of Chemical Reactions 1. Chemicals react when they collide with enough force to overcome the repulsion by their electrons. 2. temperature 3. particle size 4. concentration of reactants 5. catalysts
catalysts something that will speed up the reaction rate
temperature in relation to chemical reaction increase temperature increases kinetic energy & bump in more often to reactants
Water most important inorganic molecule, makes up 60-80% of the volume of most living cells has high heat of vaporization &heat capacity polar molecule & is universal solvent important reactant in many chemical reactions forms a protective cushion around or
water has a a high heat capacity meaning... absorbs & releases a great deal before it changes temperature
Water has a high heat of vaporization, meaning takes a lot of energy to break the bonds
Salts are ionic compounds containing cations other than H+ & anions other than the hydroxyl (OH-) ion. When salts are dissolved in water they dissociate into their component ions
Acids are also known as proton donors, & dissociate in water to yield hydrogen ions and anions.
Bases are also known as proton acceptors, and absorb hydrogen ions (release hydroxyl ions in water).
Buffers resist large fluctuations in pH that would be damaging to living tissues.
physiological pH 7.4
acidosis lower than 7 can produce coma
alkalosis above 7.8 can cause uncontrollable & sustained skeletal muscle contractions
Organic Compounds Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, & ATP
Carbohydrates are a group of molecules including sugars and starches. major function in the body is to provide cellular fuel. Function in energy storage
Lipids are insoluble in water but dissolve readily in nonpolar solvents.
Steroids are flat molecules made up of four interlocking hydrocarbon rings. Important for regulation of sexual function.
Proteins play vital roles in cell function play vital roles in cell function long chains of amino acids connected by peptide bonds
primary structure linear sequence of amino acids is
secondary structure Proteins twist and turn on themselves
tertiary structure resulting from protein folding upon itself to form a ball-like structure.
quaternary structure two or more polypeptide chains grouped together to form a complex protein.
Protein denaturation a loss of the specific three-dimensional structure of a protein. It may occur when globular proteins are subjected to a variety of chemical and physical changes in their environment such as rise in temperature
Enzymes are globular proteins that act as biological catalysts. may be purely protein is chemical specific work by lowering the activation energy of a reaction.
Nucleic acids composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus are the largest molecules in the body Nucleotides are the structural units
nucleotide consists of three components a pentose sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogen-containing base.
five nitrogenous bases Adenine (A), Guanine (G), Cytosine (C), Uracil (U), and Thymine (T).
DNA genetic material of the cell, and is found within the nucleus. replicates itself before cell division and provides instructions for making all of the proteins found in the body. containing the nitrogenous bases A, T, G, and C, and the sugar deoxyribose
Bonding of the nitrogenous bases in DNA is very specific; A bonds to T, and G bonds to C.
RNA sugar = ribose bases = A, G, C, and U single-stranded There are different types, and they all participate in carrying out DNA instructions for protein synthesis
ATP energy currency used by the cell The phosphate groups are connected by high energy bonds. Breaking the high energy bonds releases energy the cell can use to do work.
three basic components of cell 1. plasma membrane or cell membrane 2. cytoplasm 3. nucleus
plasma membrane function: separates cell contents from extracellular fluid & controls entry of ions & nutrients, eliminates wastes, & releases secreations components: lipid bilayer & membrane proteins
types and functions of membrane proteins anchoring: attaches plasma membrane to other structures channel: a pore to pass things through recognition: detects cell by flag works w/ immune system receptor: bind to specific extracellular molecules carrier: shuttle across membrane
membrane junctions membrane is modified in some places to allow for joining cells mechanically/structurally, prevent intercellular passage of molecules, or communication
cytosol fluid of cytoplasm gel like to hold in place
inclusions aggregations of insoluble pigaments, nutrients, or other material in cytoplasm
mitochondria s: double membrane w/ inner membrane folds inclosing important metabolic enzymes f: power house
ribosomes s: RNA & proteins either bound to RER or scattered in cytoplasm, don't have membrane f: protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum s: network of membranous sheets & channels f: SER: synthesis of lipids & carbs RER: provide storage & transport for proteins
golgi apparatus s: pancakes; flattened membranes containing chambers f: storage, alteration, & packaging of synthesized products
lysosomes s: vesicles containing digestive enzymes f: break down of organic compounds & damaged organelles, vesicles isolate dangerous chemicals, recycle organelles
peroxisomes s: vesicles containg degradive enzymes f: break down of organic compound & neutralization of toxic compounds generated
microtubules provide strength & move organelles; radiate away from centrosome ex: move mucus away from lungs
microfilaments provide strength, alter cell shape, bind cytoskeleton to plasma membrane, tie cells together, involved in muscle contraction
intermediate filaments provide strength, move materials through cytoplasm, structural
centrosomes localized region of cytoplasm containing a pair of centrioles at right angels to one another
centrioles organize microtubles in the spindle to move chromosomes during cell division
nucleoli s: transient nuclear organelles f: manufacture large amounts of protiens
chromatin DNA coiled around histone proteins a. loosely coiled strands = chromatin b. when tightly coiled during cell reproduction = chromosome 2.DNA contains information for protein synthess
Cystic Fibrosis mucus builds up in the lungs b/c membrane channels close to salts
ALD can't break down fatty acids causes neuromuscular issues
Tay-Sachs genetic problem causes loss of control b/c lysosome missing enzyme build up fat in nervous tissue
Cell Life Cycle 1.G1-normal cell functions: cell growth, duplication, protien synthesis 2.S-replication of DNA 3.G2-protein synthesis & replication of centrioles 4.mitosis 5.G0-not preparing for division & doing function of that cell type
Mitosis Pro-centrioles move to opposite poles & nuclear membrane dissinigrates Meta-chromatids make a line on plate Ana-chromatids seperate & pulled along spindle toward oppiste 2 cells Tel-chromatids reach end of spindle & form cleavage furrow for seperation
Cytokinesis seperation of cells & forming of plasma membrane. it follows mitosis
Cancer & lead killer uncontrollable cell growth & multiplication (accelator or brakes stuck) Lung cancer lead killing cancer
neoplasm & types mass of cells 1. benign: isolated 2. malignant: not isolated
metasis spreading of cells
carcinogens cause mutations in cells can be physical, chemical, or biological
what human cell has an impermeable membrane? none
passive process vs. active passive no ATP or energy where active needs energy
simple diffusion region of high concentration to low concentration ex: sugar molecule in water moves by6 kinetic energy bounce around to even space
facilitated diffusion helped along or taken across membrane by means of protein carriers
carriers transport items too large to fit through the membrane channels
osmosis movement of water across a selctively permeable membrane from solution to another making solute even via diffusion
3 types of tonicity isotonic: concentration equal moves @ = rate hypo tonic: less concentration than inside the cell; water moves in & cell swells hypertonic: solution is high concentration & cell concentration is low water moves out & cell shrivels up
filtration passive process of movement of a fluid across a membrane whose pores restrict the passage of solutes on the basis of size. ex: hydrostatic pressure by heart pumping
secondary active transport definition the mechanism itself does not require ATP but cell often needs to expend ATP to keep homeostasis. movement follows an existing concentration gradient for 1 of 2 substances transported & transport don't require energy input
secondary active transport process a sodium ion & a glucose molecule bind to receptor sites on the carrier protein. the carrier protein then changes shape opening a path to the cytoplasm & releasing the transported materials. then reassumes original shape. ATP is expended thru NaK pump
primary active transport NaK pump is example pumps Na back outside cell
vesicular transport movement of things in & out of the cell via small membranous sacs that form have 2 catagories: endocytosis & exocytosis
exocytosis The ejection of cytoplasmic materials by the fusion of a membranous vesicle with the plasma membrane.
endocytosis: The movement of relatively large volumes of extracellular material into the cytoplasm via the formation of a membranous vesicle at the cell surface
phagocytosis: The engulfing of extracellular materials or pathogens; the movement of extracellular materials into the cytoplasm by enclosure in a membranous vesicle.
pinocytosis: The introduction of fluids into the cytoplasm by enclosing them in membranous vesicles at the cell surface.
receptor-mediated endocytosis material in extracellular fluid bind to the membrane surfaces plasma membrane form coated vesicles as it bring into the cell
transcytosis trasporting something all the way through the cell to the other side
Epithelial Tissue a sheet of closely apposed cells w/ little or no intercellular space cover internal and external surfaces including glands lies on a basement membrane which separates from underlying CT functions: protect, absorb, secrete, filter, & excrete avascular
Classification of Epithelia: shapes simple=one layer, all cells touch basement membrane stratified=2+ layers, only bottom layer touches basement membrane pseudostratified=appears multilayered but really single, different heights, all reach basement membrane, not all surface
Classification of Epithelia: shape of cells squamous= flat cuboidal= same height and width columnar= taller than wide
simple squamous thin sheet diffusion and filtration location = blood vessels, lungs
simple cuboidal single layer of cuboidal cells secretory location = glands and ducts
simple columnar may be ciliated or not secrete and absorb location = ciliated = uterine tube non-ciliated = digestive tract
pseudostratified ciliated columnar not all cells exposed to surface, all touch basement membrane remove foreign debris location = respiratory epithelium such as in trachea
stratified squamous many layers of flat cells protective, high ability to replace upper surface location = skin and mouth
stratified cuboidal - rare most common in ducts: sweat, mammary, & other exocrine glands
stratified columnar - rare line large ducts of salivary glands or pancreas
transitional specialized, surface cells are round rather than flat as in surface cells of stratified squamous specialized to permit stretching location = urinary bladder and ureters
Glandular Epithelia develop from epithelia as they invade underlying CT retain connection to the surface as a duct = exocrine gland (endocrine secrete into tissues) examples = sweat, sebaceous, and mammary glands also salivary and pancreas
classification according to structure simple vs. compound compound if the duct divides one or more times on the way to the gland cells
mucous cell: A goblet-shaped, mucus-producing, unicellular gland in certain epithelia of the digestive and respiratory tracts; also called goblet cells.
classification according to structure tubular vs. alveolar tubular: glands whose glandular cells form tubes alveolar: glands whose glandular cells form sac-like pockets
classification according to secretion mode Merocrine = release secretions directly into lumen, salivary gland, watery Apocrine = portion of secretory cell discharged with secretion, mammary gland’s lipid secretion Holocrine = entire cell released, sebaceous glands, oily
Connective Tissue plays a mechanical role in providing and maintaining form in the body components divided in 3 classes 1. cells 2. fibers 3. ground substance * 2+3 = matrix * embedded in matrix are connective tissue cells
Connective Tissue functions functions: structural – organ capsules, tendons, ligaments, bone & cartilage (specialized ct) defense – due to phagocytic & immunocompetent cells, also physical barrier nutrition – matrix b/w cells & blood supply where exchange of metabolites occur
CT Ground Substance A. acts as a lubricant and a barrier from foreign particles B. high water content C. glycoproteins
CT Fibers collagenous reticular elastic
collagenous fibers clear, but in abundance appear white collagen protein properties = inelastic, flexible, and strong
reticular fibers extremely thin and loose branched forming a network = reticulum composed of type of collagen fibril known as reticulin abundant in smooth muscle, liver etc
elastic fibers medium-sized, elastin protein yellow in color highly stretchable in blood vessels and lungs
Mast Cell 1. release heparin and histamine when triggered 2. oval cells with basophilic granules
areolar c.t (loose connective tissue) 1. lots of space which usually contains much fluid – carry nutrients and waste 2. too much fluid = edema 3. function = attach skin, fill interorgan spaces, surround and support vessels
adipose c.t. (loose connective tissue) 1. functions in fat storage and pads 2. fat cells (adipocytes) in loose c.t. 3. each cell contain a fat droplet which shoves cellular contents to one side
reticular c.t. (loose connective tissue) 1. specialized loose c.t. in which reticular fibers predominate 2. found in stroma of spleen, liver, lymph nodes
dense irregular c.t. (fibrous) 1. fewer cells, more collagen, resists tension from all directions 2. found in dermis, covering bones, cartilage, nerves, certain organs like spleen
dense regular c.t (fibrous) 1. parallel bundles of collagen fibers = resist parallel tension, not stretchy 2. fibroblasts are only cell type 3. found in tendons and ligaments
blood 1. matrix = watery plasma 2. several cells type (WBC’s and RBC’s)
cartilage 1. ground substance contains special proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid > firm matrix 2. fibers = collagen 3. cells = chondroblasts, chondrocytes >>> fibers and matrix 4. avascular – gets supply from dense irregular covering = perichondrium
types of cartilage a. hyaline–tight collagen, flexible, embryonic skeleton, articular cartilage (ends of bones) b. elastic–looser collagen, elastic fibers, external ear and epiglottis c. fibrocartilage–parallel thick collagen, intervertebral discs and articular discs
bone 1. matrix = like cartilage but also has deposits of inorganic salts 2. cells = osteoblasts >> osteocytes 3. highly vascular 4. osteon – columns a. central canal b. lamellae c. lacunae d. canaliculi
Muscular Tissue Function 1. motion 2. heat production 3. posture and body support
skeletal attached to bones a. voluntary b. long cylindrical cells c. striated in appearance d. multinucleated
cardiac heart only, not blood vessels a. involuntary b. long cylindrical cells c. striated in appearance d. one nucleus per cell e. intercalated disc = for communication between cells
smooth found in walls of hollow organs a. involuntary b. spindle-shaped cells c. not striated d. one oval nucleus per cell
Nervous Tissue function 1. orientation of the body to environment 2. coordinate and control body activities 2 types: neuron & neralgia
Neuron a. the structural and functional unit of nervous tissue b. parts 1) cell body/soma 2) dendrites – bring info in 3) axon – send info out
Neuralgia supporting cells several functions > structural support, phagocytic, secrete CSF, blood-brain barrier, protect axons
Mucous membrane line passageways & chambers that communicate with the exterior. They must be kept moist to reduce friction & to facilitate absorption or secretion. ex: digestive, respiratory, reproductive, & urinary tracts
serous membranes consist of a mesothelium supported by areolar tissue. they are very delicate & never directly connected to the exterior. 3 serous membranes line subdicision of ventral body cavity: pleura, peritoneum, & pericardium
cutaneous membrane covers the surface of the body. consist of a stratified squamous epithelium & a layer of areolar tissue reinforced by underlying dense irregular CT. its is a thick relatively waterproof & usually dry layer
Created by: midnight1854