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Chapter Four

Social psych

social perception the study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people
nonverbal communication the way in which people communicate, intentionally or unintentionally, without words
encode To express or emit nonverbal behavior
decode To interpret the meaning of the nonverbal behavior of other people
affect blend A facial expression in which one part of the face registers one emotion while another part of the face registers a different emotion
display rules Culturally determined rules about which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
emblems nonverbal gestures that have well-understood definitions within a given culture
implicit personality theory a type of schema people use to group various kinds of personality traits together
attribution theory a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behavior
internal attribution the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the situation he or she is in
covariation model A theory that states that to form an attribution about what causes a person's behavior, we systematically note the pattern between the presence or absence of possible causal factors and whether or not the behavior occurs
consensus information information about the extent to which other people behave the same way toward the same stimulus as the actor does
distinctiveness information information about the extent to which one particular actor behaves in the same way to different stimuli
consistency information information about the extent to which the behavior between one actor and one stimulus is the same across time and circumstances
correspondence bias the tendency to infer that people's behavior corresponds to (matches) their disposition (personality)
perceptual salience the seeming importance of information that is the focus of people's attention
two-step process of attribution analyzing another person's behavior first by making an automatic internal attribution and only then thinking about possible situational reasons for the behaviors, after which one may adjust to the original internal attribution
actor/observer difference the tendency to see other people's behavior as dispositionally caused but forcing more on the role of situational factors when explaining for one's failures that blame external, situational factors
self-serving attributions explanations for one's successes that credit internal, dispositional factors and explanations for one's failures that blame external, situational factors
defensive attributions explanations for behavior that avoid feelings of vulnerability and mortality
belief in a just world a form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people
which of the following is an example of multi-channel nonverbal communications averting one eyes while speaking with a flat tone and twisting on one foot
greg has recently taken in a stray dog. if you make an external attribution for greg's behavior, you will conclude that the dog is probably cute and friendly
the perception that our own behaviors are caused by the situation but that others behaviors are dispositionally caused is know as the actor/observer difference
a consequence of our belief in a just world is that we blame the victime of misfortune
facial expression, tone of voice, and the use of touch are all examples of nonverbal communication
Japanese women less often exhibit a wide, uninhibited smile that women in western cultures because Japanese and Western cultures prescribe different display rules
which of the following is an example if an emblem the okay sign created with the thumb and forefinger
research indicates that suppressed emotions are often leaked via a facial expression or body movement
the display of different emotions on different parts of the face is called a(n) affect blend
according to fritz heider, the attribution we make for people's behavior can be either ___or____ internal;external
the study of how we form impressions and make judgments of others is called social perception
the three types of information central to kelleys covariation model are consensus, distinctiveness, and consistency
research on cultural differences in attribution styles indicates that people form individualistic cultures prefer dispositional explanations of behavior
the automatic formation of an internal attribution followed by a situational one given time and effortful thought describes the two-step process of attribution
to express emotions is to ___and to interpret emotions is to____ encode;decode
Lassiter and colleagues presented courtroom judges and police officers with videotaped suspect(actually a confederate) who confessed to a crime. they found that for both the judges and police officers, the videotape that focused only only the suspect produced significantly higher ratings of voluntariness
Which of the following is FALSE regarding implicit personality theories we are always consciously aware of using implicit personality theories
which of the following focus on how we make inferences about the causes of other people's behaviors attribution theory
according to kelleys convariation model, when people use information about whether or not the actor acts the same way toward everyone, not just the target, they are using _____information to make an attribution about the actor's behavior distinctiveness
according to kelleys convariation model, when people use information about whether or not the actor acts the same way toward the target, not just the target, they are using _____information to make an attribution about the actor's behavior consensus
the six major emotions are the first to appear in human development true
Gyekye and Salminen asked industrial workers and their supervisors in Ghana, Africa to assign causality for on the job accidents. Workers blamed__ and supervisors blamed____ factors in the situation; the workers
which of the following is FALSE regarding the 2005 study conducted by kruger et al email communication participants friends did better at decoding the correct emotion than did complete strangers
chinese students are expected to attribute their success to their own intelligence false
when people make___attributions for successes and ___attributions for failures, they are making self-serving attributions internal;external
all of the following are reasons why people make self-serving attributions EXCEPT which one because we are motivated to be accurate
which of the following is a type of defensive attribution belief in a just a world
which of the following is true about the correspondence bias it is the tendency to believe that ppls behavior match their personalities;it occurs across cultures; ppl in collectivist cultures are most likely to adjust it to take into account situational informational compared to people from individualist cultures
taylor and fiskes study on perceptual salience demonstrated that when participants were facing a speaker in a conversation, they judged that speaker as having more impact on the conversation
when they looked at how japanese media described the performance of japanese gold medalists in the 2000 and 2002 olympics, markus et al found that the medalists were described in broad terms, including the individuals ability but also discussing part success and failures, and the role of other people (such as coaches) had played in the success
hare and tomasello have conducted research on the ability of other species to read nonverbal cues they have found that dogs are adept at reading "dog nonverbals" and human nonverbals
children as young as ___months to a year express the six basic emotions with the facial expressions we associate with adults 6
accoring to research by justin kruger and his colleagues, email writer do not realize to a sufficient extent, the problem caused by loss of nonverbal cues true
in american, we presume that is someone is kind the person is also generous
the convariation model assume that people make causal attributions in a(n) ______ways rational, logical
On 12-1-05 public transportation tributed to rose parks in her honor passengers were asked, via a posted sign on the adjacent window. to leave the seat behind the driver empty. a journalist questions individuals who sat on the seat& found that these ppl had not seen the sign
in the two-step of making attributions, we will engage in the second step if we consciously slow down and think careful before reaching a judgement; are motivated to reach as accurate a judgement as possible; are suspicious about the behavior of the target person
research has indicted that differing cultural values affect the kind of information that people notice and pay attention to true
Amy assumes that her poor grade on an exam is due to the fact that she is working too many hours, but she assumes that the poor grade received by the student next to her is due to laziness and a lack of motivation. amys behavior best illustrates the actor/observer difference
Preliminary research suggests that in culture with extremes of wealth and poverty, just world attributions are more common than in cultures where wealth is more evenly distributed
external attributions the inference that a person is behaving a certain way because of something about the person
Created by: aelayan21