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Chapter Three

social psych

social cognition How people think about themselves and the social world, or more specifically,how people select, interpret, remember, and use social information to make judgements and decisions
automatic thinking Thinking that is nonconscious, unintentional, involuntary, and effortless
schemas Mental structures people use to organize their knowledge about the social world around themes or subjects and that influences the information people notice, think about, and remember
accessibility The extent to which schemas and concepts are the forefront of people's minds and are therefore likely to be used when we are making judgements about the social world
priming The process by which recent experiences increase the accessibility of a schema, trait or concept
self-fulfilling prophecy The case where by people have an expectation about what another person is like, which influences how they act toward that person, which causes that person to behave consistently with peoples original expectations, making the expectations come true
judgemental heuristics Mental shortcuts people use to make judgements quickly and efficiently
availability heuristics A mental rule of thumb whereby people base a judgement on the ease with which they can bring something to mind
representativeness heuristic A mental shortcut whereby people classify according to how similar it is to a typical case
base rate information Information about the frequency of members of different categories in the population
analytic thinking style A type of thinking in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context
hollistic thinking style A type of thinking in which people focus on the overall context, particularly the ways in which objects relate to each other
controlled thinking Thinking that is conscious, intentional, voluntary, and effortful
counterfactual thinking Mental changing some aspect of the past as a way of imagining what might have been
thought suppression the attempt to avoid thinking about something we would prefer to forget
overconfidence barrier The fact that people usually have too much confidence in the accuracy of their judgements
Social cognition is the study of how people select, interpret, remember, and use information to make judgements and decisions
Automatic thinking helps is understand new situations by relating them to our... our prior experiences
Schemas are typically very useful for helping us organize the world;make sense of the world; fill in the gaps of our knowledge
In a study by Corell, et al nonblack participants playing a video game were most likely to press a button to shoot when the people in the photo were black, whether or not these people were holding a gun
It is likely that the differences in academic performance between boys and girls can be explained solely by biological differences false
People who grow up in Western cultures ten to have a/an ___thinking style analytic
The self-fullining prophecy makes schemas resistant to change because it produces the evidence that confirms the schema
When we base our judgements on the ease with which we can bring something to mind, we are using the___ heuristic availability
Given information about a specific person that contradicts base rate information, people tend to ignore the base rate, judging only how representative the information about the person is of a general category
Which of the following is most likely performed using controlled thinking calculating the answer to a difficult math problem
because people think that their reasoning processes are less fallible than they actually are, anyone trying to improve people's accuracy is up against a(n) overconfidence barrier
Kelly had students read different descriptions of a guess lecturer who they evaluated at the end of class. results indicate that: the descriptions influenced students to such an extent that they failed to differentiate between ambiguous and unambiguous behaviors
Which of the following is NOT an advantage of viewings the world through schema-tinted glasses? schemas facilitate the unbiased processing of information
The process by which recent experiences increase accessibility of a schema is called priming
Any time people act on their schemas in a way that makes the schema "come true" a(n) self-fulfilling prophecy
Making judgements by comparing someone to a stereotype demonstrates that use of a(n) representativeness
Matt and Sam r both trying 2 catch 10am flgihts but arrive @the airport too late. Matt finds out that his plane has been delayed and he missed by2 mina. Sam flight left on time &missed it by 20 mins. Based on counterfactual learning who will be more upset math, because he can easily imagine getting to the airport a few minutes earlier
Counterfactual thinking is conscious and effortful
nonconscious and unintentional is to___thinking as conscious and effortless is to ___thinking. automatic; controlled
In a study by Petrie medical students were asked to suppress thoughts. The results found that people who suppressed thought showed a significant increase in immune system functioning monitoring;operating
Regarding our ability to engage in thought suppression, the ___process is the automatic part of the system and the ___process is the controlled part of the system monitoring;operating
Which of the following is FALSE about thought suppression it is healthier for people to suppress thought about negative events than to discuss them
Natasha expects men to be rude. She meets her roommates boyfriend, and he acts somewhat rude to Narasha because she is cold toward him. This is an example of the self-fulfilling prophecy
When applied to members of a social group such as a gender or race, schemas are commonly referred to as discrimination
Counterfactual reasoning is clearly conscious and effortful true
Heauritics are sometimes adequate and sometimes inadequate
Categorizing things according to representativeness is often a perfectly reasonable thing to do true
Carol has just taken a personality test online. She was surprised at how accurately the feedback described her. Carol has probably just experienced the barnum effect
A highly accessible schema is one that people can bring to mind easily
Higgins and colleagues study of participants perceptions of "Donald" illustrates which f the following processes priming
the police officers who shot Amadou Diallo used ____thinking automatic
The term schema is very general, it encompasses our knowledge about many things
People with Korsakov's syndrome lose the ability to form new memories; go to great lengths to try to impose meaning on their experiences
The holistic thinking style is a type in which people focus on the properties of objects without considering their surrounding context. false
If you ask teachers which of their current students are most academically gifted or who their most outstanding students have over the years, most of the students they mention are___. male
Self-fulfilling prophecies are most likely to occur when interviewers are not paying careful attention to the person they are interviewing
Which of the following can explain why the Barnum effort occurs? representativeness heuristic
Larry was engaged in a conversation at a party when he suddenly noticed that someone across the room said his name. Larry has just experienced the___. cocktail party effect
Facilitated communication has been discredited
Nisbett found that after two years of graduate work students in psychology and medicine improved on statistical reasoning problems more then students in law and chemistry did
Created by: aelayan21