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Routes & Formulation

Chapter 7

enteral Involves the alimentary or gastrointestinal tract
parenteral Any route that does not involve the alimentary tract
Name the four oral routes of administration Oral, Sublingual, Buccal, Rectal
Local effect When the drug activity is at the site of administration
Systemic effect Whena drug is introduced into the circulatory system by a route of administration and carried to the site of activity
Most frequently used route of administration Oral
SR Sustained Release
SA Sustained Action
ER or XR Extended Release
PA Prolonged Action
CR Controlled Release
TR Timed Release
LA Long Acting
Solution (Oral Formulation) Clear liquid made up of one or more substances dissolved in a solvent
Solvent liquid that can dissolve another substance to form a solution
Aqueous solution Water used as solvent
Nonaqueous solution Predominately contain solvents other than water
Nonaqueous solution solvents Glycerin, Alcohol, Propylene glycol
Elixer (A solution) Hydroalcoholic liquids for oral use 5-40% alcohol Less sweet Less viscous than syrups
Spirits (A solution) Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances Acohol content 62-85% Flavoring agent
Tincture Alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of nonvolatile substances
Suspensions Drug particles are suspended in the formulation Drug does not completely dissolve in aolvent
Advantages of Solutions Completely homogenous dose Immediately available for absorption For those who can't swallow tab or cap Doses can be easily adjusted
Disadvantages of Solutions Drugs/chemicals less stable than in dry form Some drugs not soluble in accept. solvents May need special ing. to mask object. taste More diff. to handle store and transport Require dosage measurement devices
Advantages of Suspensions Can orally admin. drugs that are insoluble in accept. solvents For those who can't swallow tab or cap Masks objectionable taste Chemically more stable than in solution
Disadvantages of Suspensions Tend to settle over time leading to lack of dose uniformity Unpleasant oral texture
Emulsions Homogenous mixture of aqeous and oleaginous components...A mixture of two liquids that do not mix with each other in which one liquid is spread through the other by mixing and use of a stabilizer
Oil in water Emulsion (o/w) Oleaginous component present as droplets
Water in Oil Emulsion(w/o) Aqeous component present as droplets
Advantages of Emulsions Masks taste of very bitter drugs Can dramatically increase oral solubility or bioavailability of drug
Disadvantge of Emulsions Has oily feel in mouth
Intravenous IIV) Injected directly into veins and circulating blood - 20 seconds for drug to circ. the body
Formulations that can be used with injectables Solutions Suspensions Emulsions - TPN Dry powder formulations
Syringeability Ease with which suspension can be drawn from container into syringe
Injectability Properties of the suspension while being injected...even flow, freedom from clogging
Intravenous sites of injection Antecubital area in front of the elbow Back of the hand
Infusion Gradual intravenous injection of a volume of fluid...usually large volume Infusion rate 2-3 mL/min
Elastomeric Pumps Use with intermittent or very slow, continuous infusions
Intravenous Needle Gauge Needle Length 16-20 Needle Gauge 1-1.5 in.
Intramuscular Administered into muscle tissue under the subcuaneous layer of the skin
Intramuscular Needle Gauge Needle Length 19-22 Needle Gauge 1-1.5
Sites for Intramuscular Injection Gluteal (buttocks), Deltoid (upper arm), Vastus lateralis (thigh)
diluent Solvent that dissolves a powder or dilutes a solution
Drugs for IM injection are formulated as: Solutions Suspensions Colloids - in aqeous & oleaginous solvents o/w Emulsions w/o Emulsions Different salt forms of drug
Depot Area in the muscle where the formulation is injected during an IM injection
Absorption rates of IM injection formulations Fastest to slowest Aqeous, Oleaginous, Suspensions, Colloids
Colloid Particles up to a hundred times smaller than those in supensions that are however likewise suspended in a solution.
Z-tract Injection Injection technique for medications that stain the skin
Volume that can be administered w an IM injection Deltoid - 2 mL Thigh - 2 mL Gluteous Maximus - 5 mL
Volume (max) that can be administered w a Subcutaneous (SQ) injection 2 mL
Subcutaneous Injection Sites Lower abdomen, front of thigh, upper back, back of upper arm
Subcutaneous injection needle size and length 24-27 needle gauge, 3/8-1" length
Most common SQ injection insulin
Rate of SQ injection controlled by: Slowly soluble salt forms, Suspensions vs. Solutions, Difference in particle size, Viscosity of medium, May be slower than IM
Intradermal Injections administered into the top layer of the skin using short needles (Diagnostic reasons, desensitization & immunization)
Intradermal - Max volume 0.1 ml
Intradermal Needle Size and Length 25-26 Needle Gauge, 3/8" Length
Intradermal injection sites Anterior surface of forearms
Intradermal injection ....Local or Systemic Effect? Local
Natural volume of eye is? 7 microliters
Volume of normal commercial eyedropper 50 microliters
How much of dose is lost by overflow in the eye 80%
Lacrimal canalicula tear ducts
transcorneal transport Drug transfer into the eye
Lacrimal gland The gland that produces tears for the eye
Conjunctiva The eyelid lining
How many g does an opthalmic ointment tube hold 3.5 g
Problems for opthalmic absorption Lacrimal (tear) drainage, Rapid absorption by eyelid lining (conjunctiva)
Bulk Powders Solid formulations to be mixed with water or juice
The pouch between the cheeks and teeth Buccal cavity
Necrosis increase in cell death
Alveoli Small sacs of tissue tht transfer oxygen
Nasal mucosa cellular lining of the nose
Nasal inhaler A device which contains a drug that is vaporized by inhalation
Atomizer Device used to convert liquid to a spray
Metered dose inhaler Aerosols that use special metering valves to deliver a fixed dose when the aerosol is actuated
Created by: jlhjlhjlh