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68wm6 p2 Intro Resp

Intro to the Resperatory System

What form of respiration involves the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the lungs and the environment and works with the cardiovascular system for the delivery of oxygen? External respiration
What form of respiration is O2 and CO2 exchanged at the cellular level? Internal respiration
What are three scroll-like bones located laterally to the nasal cavities that give the air a larger surface area to move over? Turbinates (Conchae)
What is an empyema? a collection of pus within a naturally existing anatomical cavity
What is coryza? nasal discharge often accompanying the common cold and other conditions
What is hypercapnia? More than the normal level of carbon dioxide in the blood
What is adventitious? Coming from an external source or occurring in an unusual place or manner. Not inherent, inherited or innate but rather occurring accidentally or spontaneously.
What is a deep, low pitched wheeze that is often used to describe ronchi? Sonorous wheeze
What is a constricted, high pitched hissing wheeze? Sibilant wheeze
What are Stetorous respirations? Harsh, rattling, snoring breath sounds
What is the invasive procedure to remove fluid from the space between the lining of the outside of the lungs (pleura) and the wall of the chest? Thoracentisis
How many nasal cavities (sinuses) does a normal person have? Four
What are the four para-nasal sinuses? Frontal, Maxillary, Sphenoid and Ethmoid
What are the hollow areas believed to give resonance to the voice? Para-nasal sinuses
Where are the smell receptors located? The mucosa of the nasal cavity.
What is the medical term for tear ducts? Nasolacrimal ducts
What are the three sub-divisions of the pharynx? *Nasopharynx *Oropharynx *Laryngopharnx
What portion of the pharynx is posterior to the mouth? Oropharynx
What portion of the pharynx is the most superior portion? Nasopharynx
Which portion of the pharynx is directly superior to the larynx? Laryngopharynx
Which portion of the pharynx has the adenoids? Nasopharynx
Which portion of the pharynx holds the tonsils? Oropharynx
What connects the nasopharynx to the inner ear? Eustachian tubes
A common area of airway infection in children is located where? Eustachian tubes
What connects the pharynx with the trachea? Larynx
How many rings of cartilage support the larynx? nine
What protects the larynx from swallowed food? Epiglottis
Where is the voice box located? Larynx
Where is the trachea located in relation to the epiglottis? Anterior
What is the anterior portion of the trachea covered with? The isthmus of the thyroid.
How is the cartilage of the trachea shaped? C-shaped, with the open end pointed to the posterior
List the upper respiratory tract. Nose/mouth, Pharynx, Larynx, Trachea
Aspirated objects enters which lung most often, and why? Right lung, the right bronchus Larger in diameter and more vertical in descent than the left
What are alveoli lined with to reduce surface tension and prevent collapse? Surfactant
The intrapleural space is also known as what? Thoracic cavity
How many lobes does the right lung have? Three
How many lobes does the left lung have? Two
How does gas exchange occure in the lungs? By diffusion
True or False: Air in the lungs is at a greater pressure than in the plural cavity True. The plural cavity is at a vacuum (negative pressure. Air in the lungs is atmospheric pressure & higher than that in the pleural cavity
What is responsible for the basic (unconscious) rhythm and depth of respiration? Medulla oblongata & pons
What are Located in the carotid and aortic bodies and are sensitive to blood carbon dioxide, oxygen, & pH levels Chemoreceptors
Stimulate or suppress respirations to normalize blood values of CO2, O2 and pH? Chemoreceptors
What is a late sign of respiratory distress? Nasal flaring
What vitals go UP with hypoxia? Pusle, Respirations, B/P
What does a sibilant wheeze indicate? constricted airways
What does a sonorous wheeze indicate? Secretions in the large airways
What do crackles (rales) indicate? Fluid in the alveoli
What does a pleural friction rub sound indicate? Inflammation of the pleura
What diagnostic test confirms Pneumothorax, Pneumonia, Pleural effusion, and Pulmonary edema Chest radiographs (Roentgenogram)
What do chest radiographs (Roentgenogram) show? *Visualizes the lungs and major thoracic vessels *Alterations in size and location of the pulmonary structures *Identifies lesions, infiltration, foreign bodies, or fluid *Disorders involving the parenchyma or interstitial spaces
What must be removed prior to a chest radiograph (Roentgenogram) Jewelry
What is the painless, non-invasive diagnostic test that scans the lungs in small layers identify pulmonary lesions? Computed Tomography (CT)
What test is done to Obtain information on lung volume, ventilation, pulmonary spirometry and gas exchange? Pulmonary function test
A Surgical endoscopic procedure to obtain lymph nodes for biopsy for tumor diagnosis Mediastinoscopy
True or False: A laryngoscopy does not anasthesia False. Requires local or general anesthesia
What is bronchoscopy? Bronchoscope is passed into the trachea and bronchi with either a flexible fiberoptic or a rigid bronchoscope used to visualize the larynx, trachea, and bronchi
How long after an airway procedure should the PT be NPO? Until gag reflex returns
How should PTs be placed after an airway procedure? Placed in semi-fowlers position and turned to one side
Performed on sputum or pleural fluid to detect the presence of abnormal or malignant cells Cytology studies
Why should sputum specimens be collected before meals? To avoid possible emesis
How should you instruct the PT to cough up sputum? Inhale and exhale deeply 3 times, inhale swiftly, cough forcefully, and expectorate into the STERILE sputum container
What can be provided if the PT is unable to raise sputum spontaniously? A hypertonic saline aerosol mist
What should the PT do before expectorating sputum into a sterile specimen bottle? Rinse mouth with water
How can a sputum sample be obtained if the PT is unable to expectorate? Through endotracheal suctioning
What position is a thoracentisis procedure performed? At bedside sitting upright & leaning over a bedside table or on side with affected side up
Upon thoracentisis, what is an indicator that the PT is at risk for subsequent pulmonary edema? If >1500 ml removed at one time
How would you place the PT after thoracentisis? on UNAFFECTED side
What test measures the lungs ability to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide and the body’s acid-base balance? Arterial Blood Gas (ABG)
What is the normal value for PaCO2? 35-45mmHg
What is the normal value for PaO2? 80-100mmHg
What is the normal value for HCO3? 21-28mEq/l
Oxygen dissolved in plasma is expressed as what? PaO2
Oxygen combined with hemoglobin is expressed as what? SaO2
What kind of syringe is used to draw blood for an ABG? A heparinized syringe.
How much blood is drawn into the heparinized suringe for and ABG, and where is it drawn from? 3-5ml, an artery
What is performed to check ulnar circulation before a radial artery stick? Allens test
How long must pressure be held after an ABG draw? 5 minutes
Where should the syring be placed after an ABG draw? Ice water
An SaO2 of what is needed to adequately replenish the oxygen in the plasma.? 90% - 100%
An SaO2 of what is considered life threatining? 70%
What can affect readings from a pulse ox? Hyperthermia
Created by: Shanejqb