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Genetics Definitions

Genetics Vocabulary for Science Test 2/21/07

Allele The different forms of a gene
Chromosome A threadlike strand in the nucleus that controls cell activity and carries genetic materials to pass traits to offspring
Diploid Cell A cell that has the same number of chromosomes as it's parent cell
Dominant The strong form a gene that, when present, overrides any recessive gene
Gamete A sex cell that unites with another to form a zygote
Genetics The study of passing traits from one organism to the next
Gene A unit of genetic material that determines the traits of an organism
Genotype The gene combination that determines the phenotype
Haploid Cell A cell that receives half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
Heredity Passing traits from a parent to an offspring
Heterozygous An organism that has 2 different alleles for 1 trait
Homozygous A purebred organism from generations of the same, unchanged trait
Hybrid When a genotype is a combination of a dominant and recessive gene
Incomplete Dominance When genes produce a trait in between those of the 2 parent traits
Inherit To receive traits passed on by parents
Karyotype A picture of all the pairs of chromosomes paired up and with their similar chromosome
Meiosis A process of producing gametes with one set of unpaired chromosomes
Mendel An Austrian monk that made the 1st detailed investigation of heredity in the 1860s
Mutation A mistake in DNA or chromosomes in a body or sex cell
Pedigree A look at how traits are inherited by generation
Phenotype Traits that the organism really shows
Probability The chance that a certain trait will be passed along from parent to offspring
Pure Having the same, unchanged traits for generations
Recessive The weak form of a gene that only shows up when dominant genes aren't present
Sex-linked Traits A trait where the genes are located on the sex chromosome
Trait Each form of a characteristic
Punnett Square A grid used to show the gametes of each parent and possible offspring; a grid that indicates all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
Carrier Somebody who has a recessive trait hidden by a dominant trait
Created by: rozeepozee9893