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68wm6 p2 valv dis

Valvular Heart Disease

Do heart valves open and close actively or passively. Passively
What are the two primary pathologies that cause valvular heart disease? *Stenosis *Insufficiency(regurgitation).
the primary cause of valvular heart disease in children? Congenital defects
What is the primary cause of valvular heart disease in adults? Rheumatic heart disease
What valves are the most affected by valvular heart disease, and why? Mitral and Aortic valves affected most frequently due to greater workload and blood volume on the left vs right side of the heart.
The three diagnostic tests to confirm valvular heart disease *Chest radiograph. *Echocardiogram. *Cardiac catheterization:
Whenis surgical intervention of valvular heart disease indicated? when lifestyle is affected and medical therapy no longer alleviates symptoms, or there is diagnostic evidence of progressive myocardial failure.
What is the most common surgical intervention for valvular heart disease? open commissurotomy (widening the opening of the valves)
Define heterograft: tissue taking from one species and grafted to another (eg.porcine)
Define homograft: Tissue from the same species.
In the event of heparin toxicity, what should be used? Protamine sulfate 1mg for every mg of heparin
In the event of warfarin toxicity, what is used? Vitamin K
Where should anticoagulants NOT be administered and why? IM because of danger of hematoma formation.
What can be done to lessen bruising prior to injection of an anticoagulant? ice-cube massage of site before injection
To minimize risk of bleeding after vascular instrumentation for unstable angina, what should be done with the IV access site? Leave the vascular access sheath in place 6-8 hours after dose, and give the next dose >= 6-8 hours after sheath removal
What NSAIDS should the PT avoid taking while on anticoagulants? aspirin, naproxen, and ibuprofen
Why are antibiotics used in the treatment of VHD? Prevention of infective endocarditis.
Why must the International Normalized Ration (INR) be monitored for a patient with valve replacement Its an anticoagulation lab test
Created by: Shanejqb