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6th Grade Ch 11

Atmosphere, Heat Transfer, Water Cycle, Global Winds

troposphere layer closest to earth where all weather occurs, temperature decreases as altitude increases
stratosphere second layer of the atmosphere where the ozone layer is contained, cold at the bottom and hot at the top due to the ozone layer
mesosphere third layer of the atmosphere where meteoroids burn up, coldest layer
thermosphere fourth layer of the atmosphere where the air is thin and extremely hot
exosphere the beginning of space, extends from the thermosphere
nitrogen & oxygen the two most common gases; found throughout all the layers
ozone a form of oxygen found in the stratosphere
water vapor & carbon dioxide important gases for weather conditions; found in the troposphere
trace gases make up 1% of atmospheric gases, play an insignificant role
air pressure the force exerted by the gases pushing on an object, is greatest near the surface of Earth, in the troposphere.
air pressure ________ through the layers farther out from the surface as Earth's pull of gravity decreases. decreases
precipitation after clouds form, water droplets fall in various forms depending on weather conditions
4 types of precipitation rain, snow, sleet, and hail
evaporation water enters the atmosphere as water vapor
transpiration plants releasing water vapor into the atmosphere
condensation occurs when water vapor changes to water droplets
clouds form as a result of ___________ condensation
dew forms when water vapor condenses directly onto a surface
frost forms when water vapor changes from gas directly to ice crystals on a surface
run-off precipitation that falls on land as surface water or groundwater, always attempts to move back toward sea level
surface water occurs when precipitation falls onto a surface that is not porous or falls too fast for water to sink into the ground.
groundwater occurs when precipitation falls onto a porous surface where there is lots of space in the soil to hold the water.
solar energy the sun is the driving energy source for heating of Earth and circulation in Earth’s atmosphere
3 things that happen to the Sun's energy reflected by clouds, Earth's surface, or atmosphere, absorbed by atmosphere, and absorbed by Earth's surface.
The _______ heats up and releases its heat fairly quickly, but ______ needs to absorb lots of solar energy to warm up. land, water
The water on Earth helps to ______ the temperature range of Earth’s atmosphere regulate
greenhouse effect occurs when solar energy absorbed by Earth's surface as heat radiates back into the troposphere where it is trapped.
convection current occurs when warm air near Earth's surface rises and then cools as it goes higher in the atmosphere.
tropical convection region begins at the equator and extends to the about 30 degrees north latitude
temperate convection region extends from 30 degrees north latitude to about 60 degrees north latitude
polar convection region extends from 60 degrees north latitude to the north pole at 90 degrees north latitude
global wind belts move weather systems and surface ocean currents in particular directions.
surface currents circulation of warm and cold ocean waters influence the weather and climates of landmasses.
Gulf Stream warm current affecting eastern Atlantic shoreline
California current cold current that influences western Pacific shoreline.
sea breeze occurs during the day when the cool dense air above the water flows toward land pushing the warm less dense air up into the atmosphere.
land breeze- occurs at night when the cool dense air above land flows toward the water pushing the warm less dense air up into the atmosphere.
Convection currents near bodies of water can cause ______ winds known as land and sea breezes. These breezes blow for shorter distances. local
climate zones caused by the unequal heating of Earth's surface. (temperature dependent)
3 climate zones tropical, temperate, and polar
Climate zones are dependent upon _____ regions, _____ differences, and _____ currents. convection, temperature, ocean
wind the movement of air parallel to or along the ground.
Winds move from an area of ___ pressure to an area of ___ pressure. high, low
Coriolis effect causes global winds to appear to curve to the right in the northern hemisphere and curve to the left in the southern hemisphere due to the spinning of Earth on its axis
trade winds blow from east to west in the tropical region moving warm tropical air in that climate zone.
prevailing westerly winds blow from west to east in the temperate region moving weather systems across the US from the west coast to the east coast.
polar winds blow northeast to west in the polar region moving cold polar air in that climate zone from the poles toward the west.
Hurricanes move in the direction of the ____ winds; however, if they enter the _____ wind belt they are often turned and move in the direction of that system. trade, westerly
jet stream A fast-moving ribbon of air that moves from west to east in the Northern Hemisphere around Earth. It dips and bends and constantly changes positions
The ___ jet stream can bring down cold conditions from the north polar
The ___ jet stream can bring warm conditions from the south subtropical
Created by: Ms. Phillips