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A&P Quiz 1 CH.1-3

QuestionAnswer
Why is the selective permeability of the plasma membrane essential for normal cell function? Selective permeability allows cells to exclude some substances and allow others to pass into or out of the cell.
What is the primary energy-transferring compound of the body? ATP
What are the 3 main parts of a human cell? Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus.
In what order do elements interact in a homeostatic control system? The receptor, the control center and the effector.
What is true of negative feedback mechanisms? The output shuts off the original stimulus or reduces its intensity.
What type of membrane junction is an example of a tight junction? Junctions among epithelial cells lining the digestive tract.
What is a membrane potential? a voltage or electrical charge across the plasma membrane
What factors act to bind cells together? Specialized junctions, wavy membrane contours, and glycoproteins
___________ is an adapter molecule which brings amino acids to the ribosome to build a protein. t-RNA
Why do cells need active transport mechanisms? to move solutes against their concentration gradients
What sort of Ca2+ concentrations are maintained by the calcium pump? The Ca2+ concentration is higher in the extracellular fluid than in the cytoplasm.
Most cancer cells have a lower intracellular ATP concentration compared to normal cells. How would you expect this to affect the Na+-K+ pump in cancer cells? The Na+-K+ pump would work slower.
What is the energy source used by the Na+-K+ pump during its normal operation? hydrolysis of ATP
What best describes how phosphorylation affects the Na+-K+ pump? Phosphorylation causes the pump to change shape.
What triggers the release of phosphate from the Na+-K+ pump? binding of K+ ions to the pump
What event initiates ATP attachment to the Na+-K+ pump, leading to the pump's phosphorylation? the binding of Na+ ions to the pump
What sort of ion distributions are established and maintained by Na+-K+ pump activity? high Na+ concentration in the extracellular fluid; high K+ concentration in the cytoplasm
What is a function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum? synthesis of the cell's membranes
Nonpolar molecules are the result of what? unequal electron pair sharing
What is the role of the serous membranes covering some organs? to prevent friction between the organ and body cavity wall
The PH scale is based on what? the concentration of H+ ions.
What helps to stabilize blood PH? Buffers
What is the classification of a solution with a pH of 8.3? alkaline solution
The dorsal body cavity is subdivided into what subdivisions? The vertebral/spinal and cranial cavities.
What demonstrates the principle of complementarity of structure and function? Bones can support and protect body organs because they contain hard mineral deposits.
What correctly describes the plasma membrane? It is a dynamic fluid structure that is in constant flux.
Is the knee proximal or distal to the thigh? Distal
What is a difference between primary and secondary active transport? In primary active transport, the transport protein gets phosphorylated; in secondary active transport, the transport protein is not phosphorylated.
What is the site of ribosome assembly in a cell? The nucleolus
Which specific body cavity houses the heart and lungs? thoracic
True or False Oxygen Gas is a compound False
What defines covalent bonds? The bond formed when shared electrons occupy a single orbital common to both atoms within a molecule.
What is a difference between a compound and a mixture? No chemical bonding occurs between the components of a mixture. The properties of atoms and molecules are not changed when they become part of a mixture.
What is the regional term which includes the head: The axial part
Name a primary function of peroxisomes? 1. They contain powerful enzymes called catalases. 2. To aid in the neutralization of dangerous free radicals. 3. They contain powerful enzymes called oxidases.
The regulation of body temperature is an example of which type of homeostatic control? Negative feedback
An element has an atomic number of 17 and a mass of 35. How many protons, neutrons, and electrons does the element have? 17 protons, 18 neutrons, and 17 electrons
What is one example that would not diffuse through the plasma membrane by means of simple diffusion? Glucose
Which directional term is used to describe the relationship of the skin relative to the skeletal muscles? superficial
What is the proper description of the human body in the anatomical position? The body is erect with feet slightly apart, and palms face forward with thumbs pointing away from the body.
What is true regarding the pH of a solution? The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the more acidic the solution is.
True or False The navel is caudal to the chin. True
Which four elements comprise approximately 96% of body weight? Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
What must happen before a body cell can divide? Its DNA must be replicated exactly so that identical copies of the cell's genes can be passed on to each of its offspring.
The hand is __________ to the shoulder. distal
Choose the correctly matched pair. 1. Nucleotide: DNA 2. Glycerol and fatty acids: RNA 3. Amino acid: carbohydrate 4. Monosaccharide: lipid 1. Nucleotide: DNA
In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential; therefore, all cells are _______. polarized
Solutions with a higher concentration of solutes than the concentration inside the cell are: hypertonic.
Which organic molecules form the major structural materials of the body? proteins
What can be described as cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical planes? Oblique sections
What is true regarding the pH of a solution? The more hydrogen ions in a solution, the more acidic the solution is.
True or False The navel is caudal to the chin. True
Which four elements comprise approximately 96% of body weight? Carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen.
What must happen before a body cell can divide? Its DNA must be replicated exactly so that identical copies of the cell's genes can be passed on to each of its offspring.
The hand is __________ to the shoulder. distal
Choose the correctly matched pair. 1. Nucleotide: DNA 2. Glycerol and fatty acids: RNA 3. Amino acid: carbohydrate 4. Monosaccharide: lipid 1. Nucleotide: DNA
In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential; therefore, all cells are _______. polarized
Solutions with a higher concentration of solutes than the concentration inside the cell are: hypertonic.
Which organic molecules form the major structural materials of the body? proteins
What can be described as cuts made diagonally between the horizontal and the vertical planes? Oblique sections
True or False Some types of cells move freely through the body, while others are bound into tightly knit communities. True
What is one of the three basic steps involved in enzyme activity? The enzyme's active site binds to the substrate(s) on which it acts, temporarily forming an enzyme-substrate complex.
___________ is the diffusion of a solvent, such as water, across a selectively permeable membrane. Osmosis
Which body systems are absolutely essential for homeostasis? nervous and endocrine systems
Created by: meek586