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Environ. Bio Exam 1

QuestionAnswer
What do value based statements consist of? culture, religion, and family
What do science based statements consist of? quality and traits
The 6 characteristics of science: characteristic 1 Evidence, empirical, and measurable "facts"
The 6 characteristics of science: characteristic 2 Objective-not influenced by values (non-biased)
The 6 characteristics of science: characteristic 3 Subjective to revision; it can be updated or changed ***SCIENCE IS NOT DOGMATIC— IT'S NOT PERMANENT!
The 6 characteristics of science: characteristic 4 Science is question driven; hypothesis testing—ONLY scientists do this!
The 6 characteristics of science: characteristic 5 Science has nothing to do with right and wrong
The 6 characteristics of science: characteristic 6 Certainty
What can science tell us? What the consequences of our actions are. However, it cannot tell us what we should do to solve our problems
Is science always certain? No, it is always uncertain but can name level of certainty
What does it mean to obfuscate an issue? to deliberately confuse an issue. When people make up their own facts concerning a certain matter. Allowing values to cloud judgment creates further environmental problems
Epidemeology causes of disease and death
What are two types of Atmospheric science climatology and meteorology
climatology studies climate (advance predictive ability)
meteorology studies weather (poor predictive ability)
Geology study of sediments, rocks, etc.
Hydrology study of the physics of water
ecology science that studies relationship between organisms and environment distribution and abundance of organisms
What are the three types of ecological sciences? Physiological, behavioral, and ecosystem ecology.
Physiological ecology sensory biology
behavioral ecology (2 types) population bio— study single species community bio— multiple species
ecosystem ecology interaction with abiotic (non-living) environment
What do physiological and behavioral ecology mainly focus on in contrast to ecosystem ecology? biotic (living) processes.
Types of science-environmental decision making? epidemeology, atmospheric sciences, geology, hydrology, and ecology
field survey amount of space and time available studies natural patterns and multiple lines of evidence
manipulative experiment change hypothesized causual factor (cause and effect)
mathematical theory demography (graphs)- births and deaths
Environmental ethics applied values
what wild life was endangered during the 1900's? white tail deer, elf, turkey, bear, bobcats, mountain lions, wolves, beavers, and passenger pigeons (still extinct).
Pre-1900 ethics wilderness was the enemy and people thought that resources were unlimited
Who was John Muir? Scotland native who walked to florida but then decided to walk to California. He founded the Sierra Club, discovered Yosemite and Yellow Stone National Park. He believed in preservationist ethic
What is Muir Value? spiritual and religious value of nature. He believed you were closer to god in his untouched creations; aesthetics.
What is preservationist ethic? Very hands-off. The point is to preserve land, not construct it.
Utilitarian ethic Use and management of land
Who was Gifford Pinchot? He trained in forestry, father of forest service in US, governor and US Senator Rep of PA. He lead a lot of restoration projects.
what did Pinchot want to do with the forests? He wanted wise use of forest and sustainability.
What did Pinchot value? valued democratic fair share and in egalitarian.
what is egalitarian? everyone is equal and gets fair use
what is sustainability? able to be maintained at a certain rate or level
ecological land ethic combination of preservation and utilitarian ethics: Preserve land but also use production. Preserve land for community, ecosystems and functions
who was Aldo Leopold father of wildlife management, professor at University of Wisconsin, and formerly believed in wildlife control
history of environmental movement started in approx. 1900; poor air quality, less development, more farmland, clear-cut forest, endangered wildlife
what wild life were endangered in the 1900's white tail deer (almost extinct), turkey, bear, bobcats, mountain lion, elk, wolves, beavers, and passenger pigeons (still extinct).
Pre-1900 ethic beliefs wilderness was the enemy—>must be conquered
who was a strong believer of the preservation ethic? John Muir
what was the name of club that muir established sierra club; preservation of sierra mountains. wanted to turn sierra mountains into national park
first national park yellow stone
values of sierra club spiritual religious value of nature; muir believed that you are closer to god in his untouched creations (aesthetics).
what kind of management did muir believe in? hands-off approach to management
scientific basis for eco land ethic sustainability and production
what country invented national parks United states
environnemental economics united states has a free market system, very hands off and maximizes wealth of people
requirements of environmental eco transactions are voluntary, cost and benefits are known to buyer and seller, and cost of production must be included in purchase price, and must be accounted for by producer.
market failure external costs not included in purchase cost
what are problems caused my market failure poor decision making, makes other producers broke, economically wasteful.
examples of market failure GAS PRICES-we are not paying for the environmental damage in purchase price. MILITARY- as long as we get our oil from other countries we will always need military to guard it
waste environmental damage; creates human health problems
shared resources air and water
benefits of including true costs of production max economical growth and efficient use of resources-good for environment
types of values direct, indirect, option, and existence value
direct value consumption use
indirect use values not involving consumption; real estate value, indirect benefits, climate and waste treatment
example of indirect benefits air quality, water quality, prevents floods
option value future value not yet known and national parks, bike and walking paths
existence value preservation
methods of land conservation public ownership, voluntary agreement, legal limites
federal land most of US land was federally owned. Revolutionary war—transfer of state lands west of Appalachian. Ex. LA purchase, Alaska purchase, and WAR of 1812
disposition of public lands fertile lands were turned into private ownership lands-CT firelands of OH, grants to corporations, and individuals
Created by: aawebb12