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Ch. 14 & 28

Vital signs and hygiene

Cardinal vital signs temp, HR, resp., BP, O2 sat
6th vital sign pain
when take vital signs admission to hospital, change in condition, before/after surgery, blood administration, docs orders, before/after meds
body temperature heat produced - heat lost
normal temp 36-38c (96.8-100.4F) Fever: 101>
core temp deep tissue pulmonary artery, esophagus, urinary bladder
what controls body temp? hypothalamus
BMR basil metabolic rate - heat production at rest
conduction radiation convection evaporation xfer heat with contact - fall snow xfer heat w/o contact - fireplace xfer heat w/ air - fan xfer heat to gas - sweat
fever pyrexia, febrile, FUD 106 = tissue damage
afebrile w/o fever
pyrogens stimulate WBC's to fight infection
hyperthermia hypothermia dry skin,no sweat(heat stroke)cool can't produce heat, warm
patterns of fever sustained intermittent - spike, return normal remittent - spike, no normal relapsing - spike, normal, spike
thermometers and locations tympanic - 1 degree below oral rectum - 1 above oral oral axilla - 1 below oral skin, temporal artery
calculate centigrade to fahrenheit F to C 9/5 x C + 32 = F F - 32 x 5/9 = C
antipyretics helps hypothalamus reset set point. ex: ibuprofen, motrin, tylenol
pulse pulse rate wave of blood in aa by contraction of L ventricle # of pulsations in 1 min
stroke volume SV amt. of blood enter aorta norm: 60-70 ml per beat
cardiac output CO amt of blood pumped by heart for 1min CO = SV x HR
pulse sites temporal, carotid, brachial, apical, radial, ulnar, femoral popliteal, post. tibial, doral pedis
pulse rate rhythm tension tachycardia >100, bradycardia <60 dysrhythmia, pulse deficit strength, equality
factors influence pulse exercise, temp, emotions, stimulatns, drugs, hemorrhage, position changes
apical pulse audible, midclavicular 4th/5th intercostals
dysrhythmia abnormal heart beat
pulse deficit inefficient pulse wave. Listen to apical and take radial, should be same
blood pressure force exerted by blood when pulsating thru aa
systolic pressure SBP peak of max pressure at ejection
diastolic DBP lowest pressure at all times
pulse pressure SBP - DBP norm = 30-40 mmHg
MAP mean arterial pressure 2 x DBP + SBP/3 Norm = >60
Normal BP Hypertension 120/80 prehypertension: 120-139/80-89 stage 1 hyper 140-159/90-99 stage 2 >/= 160/100
BP cuff wide - false low, loose - false high positioned below/above - false low/h
Eupnea normal respiration & depth
Bradypnea tachypnea hyperpnea hyperventilation/hypoventilation decr resp incr resp resp incr in depth (excercise) incr rate/depth decr rate/depth
arterial pressure rates newborn 1mo 1yr 6yrs 10-13 14-17 40 85/54 95/65 105/65 110/65 119/75
Respiratory rates newborn infant toddler child adol adult 35-40 30-50 25-32 20-30 16-20 12-20
pulse oximetry indirect measure of O2 saturation in blood Norm = >90%
3 processes of respiration ventilation - amt of air perfusion - circulation of blood diffusion - xchange of gases
caries tooth decay
periodontal disease gum disease
glossitis gingivitis halitosis cheilosis inflamed tongue inflamed gums bad breath cracked lips
Assess hair dandruff, ticks, pediculosis capitis (head lice), corporis (body lice), pubis (crab lice) alopecia (balding)
bed positions Fowler's - 45deg, semi-Fowler's- 30 Trendelenburg - head down reverse Trendelenburg - foot down Flat
Hand Wash before direct contact before putting on sterile gloves before/after procedure after contact w/ skin after contact w/ body fluids moving from contaminated to clean after removing gloves
3 layers of skin epidermis, dermis, subcutaneous
buccal cavity between cheek and gum
Created by: palmerag