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GRCC BI 121 chpt 1

GRCC BI 121 - chapter 1

Anatomy and Physiology Exams the body and how it works and maintains life
Anatomy Greek word " cutting up" exams the structure of body parts, forms and how they are organized.
Physiology Relationship to nature exams the function of body on how it works and how each part does makes it work.
ology Study of
Bios life
Looks at how is something built Anatomy
Looks at how something works or functions Physiology
Form Facilitates function A way to describe the relationship between anatomy and physiology...the structure affects how it works
Dynamic Constant Change
Static Stalled state
Microbiology Study of Pathogens including Bacteria, viruses, fungi, nematodes, protozoans.
Embryology Study of Embryos
Genetics Study of Genes and inheritance traits ( what influences diseases?)
Cytology Study of Cells
Histology Study of Tissues
Molecular Biology Study of DNA and how it affects disease....looks at disease at a molecular level to determine what factors increase the risk for people with that particular DNA
Anatomical Position Standing erect, face forward, upper limbs at side with Palms facing forward.
Pathology Progression and effects of disease in an organism.
Epidemology Transmission of disease from one species to another.
The branch of medicine that studies the cause, origin, nature of disease, including the changes occuring as a result of disease Pathology
Water, Metabolism, absorption from environment, growth/repair/, reproduction, circulation, excretion, enviromental interaction, movement, cell structure, Chemical uniqueness Features limited to life forms.
Based chemistry of water Water is polar and can regulate temp, transport substances, and help with metabolic process.
Universal solvent that usually mixes with substances...but not always Water
Why is water cohesive? Because this substance is polar. It sticks together (one end of each molecule is (+) & (-))
Thermal sink Water holds high capacity to hold onto and absorb heat.
Wide range temps of staying liquid Water
212 degree farenheit = 100 degrees celsius and is the boiling point
0 degree celcius = 32 degrees farenhiet and water turns to ice.
The process of extracting and transforming energy Metabolism
Metabolism examples Absorption and secretion
"ana" Up
"cat" down
"abolic" Build/break
anabolism To build up
Combination of individual substances made into one larger substance Anabolic metabolism
Anabolic Metabolism The synthesis of larger molecules from smaller molecules.
Reduction of larger molecules into smaller molecules. Catabolic Metabolism
Catabolic Metabolism Example of convertion to glucose
We gain energy by ingesting taking in
We digest energy by breaking down
Energy is digested by breakdown, absorption and assimilating nutrients from food
How does substances get absorbed in body? They circulate throughout the internal environment
what process in getting that energy from the nutrients that were circulated and absorbed into internal environment? Respiration process uses the stored energy for vital functions such as growth/repair of tissues.
Excretion of wastes Excess is excreted through sweat, breathing, urine/ stool, vomit.
metabolism - the process of Ingest, digest, absorb, assimilate, respirate and excrete.
How many property of life on Forbes list? eleven
Property of life- regulates temp/transports substances/metabolic process. Water
Property of life - digest/ingest/excrete/ respiration. Metabolism
Property of life - you are what you eat. Absorption from environment
Property of Life - mammals and birds quit growing after a certain point. Growth and repair
Property of Life- making a baby Reproduction
Property of life- movement of substances in body fluids Circulation
Property of Life- vomit, BM, breathing, sweating. Excretion
Property of Life- response to stimuli Environmental Interaction
Property of Life - muscle, skeletal Movement
Property of Life- Atom, nucleues, organelles, etc. Cellular Structure
Property of Life - Protein, CHO, Lipids, Nucleic acids Chemical Macromolecules
Property of life; Absorption from environment You are what you eat: passage of substances as through membranes and into body fluids.
Property of Life: Growth and Repair Birds/mammals grow, repair and die.
Humans stop growing at what age? 17 or 18
Repair Humans repair themselves quicker under age 30; takes longer to repair after 30.
Can virus reproduce? They can't reproduce without a host.
requires a host, lacks nucleus and no cell structure A Virus
Property of life - Capacity for independent reproduction Production of new organism and new cells within same species
Property of life: Circulation movement of substances of body fluids
Property of life: Excretion Removal of waste produced by metabolic reactions.
BM, Stools, Pee, sweat, vomit, breathing Examples of excretion (property of life)
Properties of life: Environmental interaction Reaction to change inside or outside of body
All organisms responds to stimulants from environment Properties of life : environmental interaction.
Properties of life: Environmental interaction- Individual level Irritability (reaction to stimulus = homeostasis)
Properties of life: Environmental interaction- Species Level Evolution of new forms
Properties of life: Movement Skeletal/muscles: internally and externally abilities; change in position/ movement of internal organs.
Properties of life: Cell structure Exclusive to all life forms: Atom, nucleus, molecules, macromolecules, organelles, etc.
Properties of Life Chemical Uniqueness Life forms produces macromolecules which contain > or = to 20 C atoms.
Properties of Life Chemical Uniqueness- Macromolecule (DNA, RNA) Nucleic acids
Nucleic acids Composed of nucleotide subunits: DNA & RNA
Properties of Life Chemical Uniqueness- Protein Composed of amino acids subunits, not a living structure
Muscle, hair, blood, antibodies, and some hormones Properties of Life Chemical Uniqueness- examples of protein.
Properties of Life Chemical Uniqueness- Carbohydrates Composed of sacchrides sub units (sugars); CHO contains ratio 1:2:1
Properties of Life Chemical Uniqueness- Lipids Composed of fatty acids subunits
Butter, fat, ear wax, oils and some hormones Properties of Life Chemical Uniqueness- Lipid examples
Sucrose, starch, cellulose Properties of Life Chemical Uniqueness- carbohydrates examples.
A dynamics state of equillibrium in which the optimal parameter of the body is maintained. Homeostasis
A set point or Range Homeostatic
Homeostatic A set point or range of a parameter at which the body functions at its best.
Salinity of 0.9% Homeostatic example
Homeostatic examples Temperature of 37C or 98.6F
Homeostatic ranges that are important to remain balanced include. sugars, blood gasses fluids, vessel diameters.
T or F Homestatic range is the same for all age groups False. it varies between age groups and individuals
The difference between normal and healthy homeostatic set point It is not unusual for someone in their 80's to have high blood pressure, but that doesn't mean it is health.
Negative feedback Movement back towards the set point
Postive Feedback Move away from the set point
Patient has high serum salt,what would the homeostatic response be to decrease the salinity to normal levels of 0.9%? Homeostatic response is thirst, the more fluids the patient takes in will lower the salinity to 0.9%.
Homeostasis Maintenance Mechanisms- Receptor Percieves message; molecule/cells send info (stimulus) re: changes to internal environment and sends message to the control center.
Homeostasis Maintenance Mechanisms- Control Center Knows what set point should be and sends message to effectors.
Homeostasis Maintenance Mechanisms- Effectors Message recieved from Control center, change kicks in and muscles/glands elicit response to alter conditions to return to the set point.
Example of when Homeostaic mechanism TOO warm, muscles stop working, sweating out heat
Example of when homeostatic mechanism when it is too cold. Muscle contracts, producing metabolic heat- holds onto water to maintain normal temp.
Negative Feedback Movement back towards to the set point.
T or F. Most feedbak mechanism is negative. True..most mechanisms are negative.
Are set points the same for everyone? No, set points vary per individuals, there fore knowledge of ranges is important.
__________ is the study of homeostatic mechanisms Physiology
Blood clotting to control bleeding is an example of what type of feedback? Positive feedback. Blood normally doesn't clot, but in this case, it has to clot so that wound heals.
Lactation is an example of positive or negative feedback? Positive feedback. Normal state, breasts don't lactate; the breast is stimulated to produce milk inorder to feed baby.
Uterine contractions are positive or negative feedback? Positive feedback; our uterines don't contract; stimulus triggers the utereus from normal to contraction to push baby out.
Is increased temperature positive or negative feedback? Positive. Temp moves away from set point and increases when stimulus lets body know there is a pathogen. increased temp will destroy bacteria.
When is positive feedback good and bad? Positive feedback for temporary, but if it lingers on, then it may be a disease. Body needs to return to homeotatic set point.
Level of organ systems that will be studied in B121 Atoms > molecules > organelles > Cells > tissues > organs > Organ system > organism
organ systems - body covering Integumentary
Function of Integumentary Thermo regulator, sensory, interface with environment (take out and take in) vitamin D synthesis (absorbs through the skin)
Examplse of integumentary system Skin, Hair, Nails, Sebacceous Glands (Oil glands) sweat glands.
Organ system - Support and movement Skeletal & Muscular
Organ sysstem- Support functoin skeletal
Organ protection, musccle attachment, blood production (in long and flat bones) and mineral storage. Exampless of skeletal function
movement, thermoreg, posture, and venous circulation Examples of muscle function.
Skeletal system bones, ligaments, cartiladges, tendons.
Bicep muscles Example of muscle system.
Organ system - transport Cardiovascular & Lymphatic
Organ System - transport: cardiovascular Pump and Transport blood
Organ System - transport: cardiovascular It Carries oxygen from the lungs and nur nutrients to all the digestive cells.
Organ System - transport: cardiovascular Thermoreg
Organ System - transport: cardiovascular Transports wastes to the excretory organs.
Organ System - transport: cardiovascular Blood transports hormones from endocrine glands to their target cells and carries waste from body cells.
Organ System - transport: cardiovascular Heart, veins (push blood to heart), capillaries, arteries (away from heart)
Organ System - transport: Lymphatic- transport fluid Transport fluid within the interstitial back to the bloodstream carrying fatty substances and lymphocytes.
Organ System - transport: Lymphatic - transport of fatty substances Transport fatty substances from the digestive organs.
Organ System - transport: Lymphatic - Immunity Lymphocytes remove pathogens from body
Organ System- Lymphatic- Interstitial spaces Spaces between cells where lymphatic fluid flows.
Organ System- Lymphatic-Elephantiasis A rare condition where ring worms get inside body and lodge htem selfs within lymph nodes preventing interstitial fluid return.
Organ System- Lymphatic Lymphatic vessels and nodes, thymus and spleen.
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion Digestive, Respiratory, Excretory
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Digestive REcieves food, then breaks it down into simpler forms that can be absorbed into the internal environment
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: absorption Simple forms are broken down and distributed into the internal system.
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Elimination Removal of wastes and excess stuff
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Water absorption Some water is absorbed in the stomach
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: vitamin production Nutrients are broken down into simpler forms and absorbed internally; most nutrients are broken down in the small intestines
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: diegestive Mouth, Teeh, esophogus, pharynx, liver (converts glucogen to glucose, stores excess glycogen) , gall bladders (breaks down fat), pancreas (produces insulin and glucagon), small and large intestine, stomach
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Respiratory Gas exchange between environment and blood.
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Respiratory Gas Exchange releases toxins (excess carbon dioxide can be fatal)
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Respiratory Nasal Cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea , bronchi, lungs
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Respiratory Release of toxins
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Respiratory Nose cavity, Pharynx, Larynx, trachea, bronchi, and lungs
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Urinary-Nitrogen wastes Removes Nitrogen wastes from the blood
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Urinary- Nitrogen wastes Nitrogen wastes is a by product of protein metabolism: if not excreted excess will produce Ammonia which produces adverse effects.
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Urinary- Water and electrolyte imbalance. Excess electrolytes (i.e. salts, potassium, magnesium, etc) are eliminated.
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Urinary- storage and transport Urine is stored in the bladder and eventually is transported outside of body.
Organ system- Absorption and Excretion: Urinary Kidneys, Ureters, Urinary bladder & Urethra
Organ system- Reproduction The production and transfer of gametes (egg and sperm, copulation and embryo development
Organ system- Reproduction: copulation Delivery of Eggs and Sperm
Organ system- Reproduction: Male Scrotumm testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethera and penis.
Organ system- Reproduction: Female Ovaries, Uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, and vulva.
Organ system- Integration and Coordination Nervous and endocrine
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Nervous Organs within this system use electrochemical signals (nerve impulses) to communicate with one another and to muscles and glands.
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Nerve Impulses Sensory reception and interpretation is transmitted to body system stimulating an action.
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Nerve Impulses as it relates to muscles/glands Never impulses carry signals from the brain or spinal cord stimulating them to contract or secrete products.
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Brain, spinal cord, nerves and sense organs.
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Endocrine system Glands that secrete Chemical messengers, called hormones; AKA master control system
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Endocrine system Controls Metabolic activities of organs and glands and helps with homeostasis.
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Endocrine system: Pituatary Located in the brain
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Endocrine system: Pituatary regulates Regulates gonads, thyroid, adrenal cortex, lactation, water balance and growth.
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Endocrine system: Thyroid & parathyroid Regulates metabolic rate, blood calcium and phosphates; affects bone formation.
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Endocrine system: Adrenal Produces steroids: Epinephrine (aka adrenaline) Noreepinephrine (noradrenaline)
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: Endocrine system: Adrenal location Ontop of kidneys
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: endocrine; Pancreas Produces digestive gastric juices, hormones glucogen and insulin.
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: endocrine; Pancreas This allows liver to convert glucagon to glucose.
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: endocrine; Pancreas Location Dorsal to the stomach
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: endocrine; Ovaries Produces estrogen hormones (female hormones)
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: endocrine; testes Produces androgen hormones (male hormones)
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: endocrine; Pineal Produces hormone melatonin that regulates circadian rhythms; helps with sleep
Organ system- Integration and Coordination: endocrine; Thymus Thymosin hormones taht affect production of white blood cells.
Created by: Wends1984
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