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A&P Ch. 1

Chapter 1 Introduction & Terminology Review

Structure that can be observed with the naked eye Gross Anatomy
Simplest structures considered to meet the criteria of living things Cells
The urethra is found in the ___ region of the abdomen Hypogastric
Self-amplifying chain of physiological events Positive Feedback
Studying anatomy by touch Palpation
Hetero- Different
Ring-shaped section of the small intestine Sagittal section
The ___ region is immediately lateral to the hypogastric region Inguinal
Organ system that regulates blood volume, controls acid-base balance and stimulates red blood cell production Urinary System
Words that are composed of the first letter(s) of a word or series of words Acronyms
(T/F) A scientific theory is just a speculation until someone finds the evidence to prove it. F
(T/F) A single sagittal section of the body can pass through one lung but not through both T
(T/F) Abnormal skin color or dryness could be one piece of diagnostic information gained by auscultation F
(T/F) In a typical clinical research study, volunteer patients are in the treatment group and the physicians who run the study are the control group F
(T/F) It would be possible to see both eyes in one frontal section of the head T
(T/F) Negative feedback usually has a negative/harmful effects on the body F
(T/F) The diaphragm is posterior to the lungs F
(T/F) The axial region consists of the head, neck and the trunk T
(T/F) The peritoneum lines the inside of the stomach and intestines F
(T/F) The technique for listening to the sounds of the heart valves is auscultation T
Invented many components of the compound microscope and named the cell Robert Hooke
Simplest body structure to be composed of two or more types of tissues Organ
By the process of ___, a person may come to a conclusion by simply observing natural phenomenon over and over again Induction Method
Cutting and separating tissues to reveal structural relationships Dissection
Organs that lie within the abdominal cavity but not within the peritoneal cavity are said to have a ___ position Retroperitoneal
Physiological effects of a person's mental state Psychosomatic effects
Self-corrective mechanisms in physiology Feedback loops
Back of the neck is called the ___ region Nuchal
Membranes which line the cranial cavity Meninges
The forearm is said to be ___ when the palms are facing forward Supinated
The superficial layer of pleura Parietal pleura
Above Superior
Below Inferior
Closer to the surface of the body Superficial
Farther from the body surface Deep
Farther from the point of attachment Distal
Toward the belly/front Ventral
Toward the forehead or nose Rostral
Toward the median plane Medial
Toward the tail/inferior end Caudal
Toward the ventral side Anterior
Major features of human anatomy have prescribed standard international names Terminologia Anatomica
Rejected all eponyms and gave each structure unique Latin names used world-wide Nomina Anatomica
Methods of viewing the inside of the body without surgery Medical imaging
Branch of medicine concerned with imaging Radiology
Study of the structure and function of individual cells Cytology
Study of how different species meet the requirements of life Comparative physiology
Father of medicine Hippocrates
First to write about anatomy and physiology Aristotle
Study of the structure of more than once species Comparative anatomy
Certain habits of disciplines creativity, careful observation, logical thinking and analysis of one's observations/conclusions Scientific method
Explanatory statement or set of statements derived fro facts, laws and confirmed hypotheses Theory
Information that can be independently verified by any trained person Fact
Generalization about the predictable ways in which matter and energy behave Law
Laws of nature ___, they do not govern. Describe
Structure composed of two or more tissue types Organs
Single, complete individual Organism
Group of organs working together with a unique, collaborative function Organ system
Smallest particles with unique chemical identities Atoms
Large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by studying its simpler components Reductionism
Properties of individual parts do not fully describe the behavior of the whole organism Holism
Sum of all internal chemical reactions Metabolism
Transformation of cells with no specialized function into those with a specific purpose Differentiation
Tendency of the body to balance internal conditions Homeostasis
Increase in size Growth
The changes in the environment in which the organism responds to Stimuli
Internal state of the body Dynamic equilibrium
Widening of the vessels Vasodilation
Narrowing of the blood vessels Vasoconstriction
Cell or organ that carries out final corrective action in a feedback mechanism Effector
Terms coined from the names of people Eponyms
Words composed of the first letter or letters of a word or words Acronym
Palms facing posteriorly Pronated
Stance in which a person stands erect with feet flat on the floor and close together, face and palms facing forward with arms at the sides Anatomical position
Passes across the body or an organ perpendicular to is long axis Transverse plane
Passes vertically through the body or an organ and divides it into right and left portions Sagittal plane
Cuts a body or organ into perfect L and R halves Midsagittal plane
Thoracic and abdominal regions Trunk
Upper and lower limbs Appendicular region
Limb region between one joint and the next Segment
Enclosed by vertebral column Vertebral canal
Enclosed by the cranium Cranial cavity
Two-layered membrane encompassing the heart Pericardium
Forms the surface of the heart Visceral pericardium
The pericardial cavity is lubricated by... Pericardial fluid
Covers the surface of the lungs... Visceral pleura
Two-layered serous membrane within the abdominopelvic cavity Peritoneum
Spaces between body membranes Potential spaces
Established a code of ethics for physicians Hippocrates
Argued that complex structures are built from a smaller variety of simple components Aristotle
Physician to the Roman gladiators; at a time when it was not permitted to work with cadavers, he learned a great deal from the death and various wounds he was exposed to and published the most influential medical book of the ancient era Claudius Galen
Physician to the court of the sultan; wrote 10 influential medical books and numerous treatises on specific diseases Maimonides
Wrote the Canon of Medicine which was the leading authority in European medical schools for over 500 years Avicenna
Revolutionized medical illustration with the comparatively realistic art in the 1500s Andreas Vesalius
Studied blood circulation and published a book in 1628 William Harvey
First Western scientist to realize that blood much circulate continuously and the the heart was the central organ Michael Servetus
Invented the simple microscope and examined a variety of speciments Antony van Leeuwenhoek
Greatly improved the compound microscope, adding a condenser and developing superior optics Carl Zeiss and Ernst Abbe
Concluded that all living things were composed of cells; the first tenet of the Cell theory Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann
(T/F) Even in the early days of medicine, there were medical schools to train physicians F
Neither the subject nor the person recording the results knows whether that subject is receiving the experimental treatment of placebo Double-Blind Method
Means that if we claim something is scientifically true, we must be able to specify what evidence it would take to prove it wrong Falsifiability
Animal species or train selected for research on a particular problem Model
Highly flexible thumbs; can cross palm to touch finger tips Opposable
Adaptation provided better hand-eye coordination in catching and manipulating prey Stereoscopic vision
principal theory of how evolution works Natural selection
Features of an organisms anatomy, physiology and behavior that have evolved in response to selection pressures Adaptations
Change in genetic composition of a population of organisms Evolution
Father of evolution Charles Darwin
Walking upright on two legs Bipedalism
Created by: SavannahElkins



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