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Introduction to the Cardiovascular System

Define Aneurysm: A localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel
Define Angina pectoris: Paroxysmal (sudden onset, spasmotic, increases intensity) thoracic chest pain, pressure, and a choking feeling caused by decreased oxygen of the myocardium.
Define Arteriosclerosis: Arterial disordercharacterized by thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification of arterial walls resulting in a decreased blood supply.
Define Atherosclerosis: arterial disorder characterized by yellowish plaques of cholesterol, lipids, and cellular debris in the inner layer of the walls of large and medium sized arteries.
Define Cardioversion: Delivery of a syncronized electric shock in attempt to restore a normal heart rythm
Define Coronary Artery Disease: conditions that obstructs blood flow from the coronary arteries.
Define Defibrillation: Termination of ventricular fibrillation by delivering a direct electrical countershock to the precordium.
Define Dysrhythmia: A cardiac rythm thats not the normal sinus rythm
Define Endarterectomy: Surgical removal of the intimal lining of an artery.
Define Intermittant claudication: A weakness in the legs accompanied by cramp-like pains in the calves; caused by decreased arterial circulation of the blood to the leg muscles.
Define Ischemia: decreased blood supply to a body organ or part.
Define myocardial infarction: necrosis of a portion of the cardiac muscle caused by decreased perfusion by the coronary artery.
Define Orthopnea: abnormal condition in which a person must sit-up or stand to breathe deeply or comfortably.
Define Pleural Effusion: an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the thoracic cavity between the visceral and parietal layers.
Define Polycythemia: an abnormal increase in the number of red blood cells in the blood.
Define Pulmonary Edema: an accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung tissue and alveoli; caused most commonly by left-sided heart failure
What side of the heart does heart failure cause edema in the legs? Right side.
What side of the heart does failure lead to fluid build up in the lungs? Left side.
True or False: Ischemia involves cell death. False. Ischemia can lead to cell death eventually, but it is infarction that involves cell death.
Define Coronary Circulation: the right and left coronary arteries branch off from the aorta, just above the aortic valve, encircles the heart, and perfuses the myocardium with the necessary oxygen and nutrients, and removes the wastes.
What perfuses the right atrium, right ventricle, and the posterior portion of the left ventricle? Right coronary artery.
What supplies blood to the anterior wall of the left ventricle and the apex of the left ventricle? Left coronary artery.
What perfuses the myocardium with the necessary oxygen and nutrients? coronary artery
Define Systemic circulation: occurs when blood is pumped from the left ventricle of the heart through the aortic valve to all parts of the body and returns to the right atrium.
Define pulmonary circulation: deoxygenated blood is pumped from the right ventricle through the pulmonic valve to the lungs and returns to the left atrium of the heart via the pulmonary veins.
Where does blood containing CO2 and waste products from the heart flow? Into the coronary veins and the coronary sinus directly into the right atrium.
What is the main trunk of the systemic arterial circulation? Aortic artery.
What are the four parts of the aorta? Ascending aorta, aortic arch, descending aorta, abdominal aorta
What causes contraction of the Atria? Sinoatrial node.
what is located in the interventricular septum with branches extending to all parts of the ventricle walls? Bundle of HIS (atrio-ventricle bundle)
The ability of the heart muscle to respond to a stimulus. Irritability
What are the two characteristics that affect the functions of the conduction system? Automaticity and Irritability
What causes contractions of the ventricles? Purkinje fibers.
The bundle of HIS divides into smaller left and right bundles branches, that divide further into what? Purkinje fibers.
Where is the AV node located? Located in the lower part of the posterior atrium and towards the center of the heart. (Located in the base of the right atrium)
What part of the conduction system pauses the signal so the heart contracts the atria and ventricles seperately? AV node
What does a chest radiographic illustrate? illustrates heart size, shape, and position
What is a motion radiograph helpful in many procedures? Fluoroscopy.
Define Angiogram: A radiograph that visualizes arteries by injecting dye helpful in diagnosis of aneurysm and other arterial abnormalities.
What are the uses of cardiac catheterization? *Diagnosis of cardiac pathology. *Measure pressures *within the heart. *Cardiac competence. *Valvular defects. *When iodine base dye is injected used to visualize coronary blockage and occlusion (angiography).
Is the cardiac catheter inserted directly into the cardiac chambers? N. It is passed through a peripheral vessel.
What is the most sensitive and specific indicator that heart muscle damage has occured? Triponin I
The EKG has how many leads and how may pictures? 12 leads and 10 pictures.
how is the pt positioned for a cardiac catheter? Supine.
what is a graphic study of the conduction system within the myocardium? electrocardiogram
How many chest leads and limb leads on an EKG? six chest leads and four limb leads
What are two diagnostics test used to test cardiac function under stressful conditions created in a laboratory environment? Stress Testing/Thallium Scanning:
Define Endocardiography: ultrasound directed at the heart. It is used to show size, shape, motion and ejection fraction (cardiac output).
Created by: Shanejqb