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cardio 3 path

Cardio 3

thrombus superimposed on plaque, leading to complete occlusion transmural MI
incomplete occlusion +/- vasospasm subendocardial MI, angina, sudden death
1st step in MI sudden change/disruption of plaque
2nd step in MI release of collagen and plaque contents
3rd step in MI stimulation of platelet adhesion and activation
4th step in MI release of platelet aggregators (TXA2)
5th step in MI vasospasm and activation of extrinsic pathway
6th step in MI occlusion
partial LV failure w/hypotension +/- pulmonary edema contractile dysfunction
disturbances in conduction system and myocardial irritability arrhythmias
myocardial rupture of ventricular free wall cardiac tamponade
caused by severe pump failure cardiogenic shock
most common time frame for cadiac tamponade 3-7 days post MI
myocardial rupture of ventricular septum L to R shunt
clinical signs of L to R shunt caused by septum rupture murmur, CHF
papillary muscle rupture acute, severe mitral regurgitation
most common time frame for pericarditis 2-3 days post transmural MI
new necrosis adjacent to an existing infarct extension
stretching, thinning, and dilation of infarcted area of myocardium expansion
focal abnormality in contractility causes stasis of blood, and endocardial damage creates thrombogenic surface mural thrombus
usually results from large anteroseptal MI that has undergone expansion ventricular aneurysm
not likely to rupture ventricular aneurysm
account for nearly half of all transplant pts CIHD
enlarged, heavy heart with LV hypertrophy and dilation CIHD
80-90% is due to IHD sudden cardiac death
typical mechanism of sudden cardiac death lethal arrhythmia
increased cardiac mass is independent risk factor sudden cardiac death
account for >90% of thrombophlebitis cases DVTs
first manefestation of thrombophlebitis PE
trousseau sign of malignancy migratory thrombophlebitis
most common cause of lymphangitis group A beta-hemolytic strep
painful subQ red streaks and painful enlargement of regional lymph nodes lymphangitis
cause of primary lymphedema congenital defect
congenital defect causing missing lymph channels in legs/groin familial milroy disease
common cause(s) of secondary edema malignant tumors, surgical procedures, post-irradiation fibrosis, filariasis, post inflammatory scarring
may be caused by persistance of edema peau d'orange, skin ulcers
increased numbers of normal or abnormal BVs filled with blood hemangioma
location of most superficial hemangiomas head/neck
location of most internal hemangiomas liver
most common variant of hemangiomas capillary hemangiomas
bright red to blue, flat or elevated capillary hemangiomas
unencapsulated aggregates of closely packed, blood filled, thin-walled caps with partial or complete thrombi capillary hemangiomas
"strawberry type" hemangiomas juvenile capillary hemangioma of skin
grows rapidly w/in first few months of age, fades at 1-3 yrs, and completely regresses by age 7 juvenile capillary hemangioma of skin
less well circumscribed, large, dilated vascular channels that involve deep structures cavernous hemangiomas
most problematic cavernous hemangiomas brain hemangiomas
von hippel-lindau disease cavernous hemangiomas of cerebellum, brainstem, retina
red-blue, soft spongy mass, 1-2 cm, sharply defined cavernous hemangiomas
associated w/dystrophic calcification cavernous hemangiomas w/intravascular thrombosis
rapidly growing pedunculated red nodule of skin, giniva, or oral mucosa that bleeds easily pyogenic granuloma
proliferating cap's with extensive edema andd inflammatory infiltrate pyogenic granuloma
involves small lymphatic channels of head, neck, axilla simple lymphangioma
distinguishes hemangioma from simple lymphangiomas presence/absence of RBCs
occurs in the neck or axilla of children, and may cause deformities cavernous lymphangioma
associated w/turner syndrome cavernous lymphangioma
massively dilated lymphatic spaces cavernous lymphangioma
benign exquistely painful tumors, usually found under fingernails glomus tumor
round, slightly elevated, red-blue, <1cm glomus tumor
group of abnormally prominent cap's, venules, and arterioles vscular ectasias
most common form of ectasia nevus flammeus
light pink to dark purple, in dermis of head/neck nevus flammeus
special kind of nevus flammeus that grows w/child and thickens skin surface port wine stain
often follows distribution of CNV port wine stain
sometimes associated w/Sturge-Weber syndrome port wine stain
aka encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis port wine stain
venous angiomatous mass in cortical meninges, port wine stain, MR, seizures, and hemiplegia Sturge-Weber syndrome
focal network of subQ small arteries/arterioles arranged in radial fashion around a central core spider telangiectasia
blanches w/pressure spider telangiectasia
associated w/pregnant women and cirrhosis spider telangiectasia
autosomal dominant disorder causing multiple aneurysmal telangiectasias Osler-Weber-Rendu disease
aka hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasias Osler-Weber-Rendu disease
affects skin and oral mucosa, resp, GI, and urinary tracts Osler-Weber-Rendu disease
can cause serious epistaxis, GI bleed, hematuria Osler-Weber-Rendu disease
opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals bacilliary angiomatosis
microorganism associated with bacilliary angiomatosis bartonella family
red papules and nodules, containing neutrophils, nuclear dust, and bacteria bacilliary angiomatosis
diagnosed with PCR bacilliary angiomatosis
4 forms of kaposi sarcoma chronic, lympadenopathic, transplant-associated, AIDS associated
older men of easter european or mediterranean descent, red to purple skin plaques/nodules on distal lower extremities that spread proximally chronic KS
location of chronic KS remain localized to skin and subQ
south african bantu children, sparse skin lesions, aggressive lymphadenopathy lymphadenopathic KS
associated w/solid organ transplantation that involves nodes, mucosa, and viscera transplant-associated KS
virus associated with KS HHV-8
1st stage of KS patch
2nd stage of KS plaque
3rd stage of KS nodule
red to purple macules, confined to distal lower extremities patch
larger, raised red to purple macules, spread more proximally plaque
sheets of plump, distinctly neoplastic nodules that invade subQ/dermis nodule
malignant endothelial neoplasms angiosarcoma
population more commonly affected w/angiosarcomas older adults
common locations for angiosarcoma skin, soft tisue, breast, liver
large, fleshy masses of red-tan to gray-white tissue with unclear margins angiosarcoma
will have central areas of necrosis and hemorrhage angiosarcoma
may be express CD31 or von Willebrand factor undifferentiated angiosarcomas
slowly enlarging, painless mass hemangiopericytoma
gaping sinusoidal spaces enclosed within nests of cells hemangiopericytoma
common locations for hemangiopericytoma metastasis lungs, bone, liver
Created by: drhermy