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Nutrition 11-09

What are the functions of nutrients build and repair tissues, regualte body processes
what is DRIs and what does it mean dietary reference intakes; average daily intake of healthy individuals
CHO; how many calories are in chos 4
primary source of e for body, spares proteins from being used as e,simple and comple, provides fiber cho
high in cal, lack nutrients simple cho
glygogen, starch dietary fiber; ako polysaccharides complex cho
made up of AA; 4 cal per g protein
necessary for growth, repari of tissue, immunity, hormones proteins
makes up most of the body;s lean tissues and organs; major component of collage; component of hormones and enzymes used in digestion and metabolism proteins
accquired from diet; not made in the body essentail AA
Made in the body; not required from diet nonessential AA
contains all 9 essential AA Complete Protein
where do complete proteins come from animal byproducts
lacks one or more of essential AA; comes from plants incomplete proteins
provides 9 cal per g fats
concentrated form of e; source of fat-soluble vitamins fats
solid at room temp; animal origin; raise bl cholesterol levels; limit to 10% tot cal qd saturated fats
fats in all meats; butter, cocoa butter saturated fats
liquid at room temp; found in veg products; lower bl cholesterol levels unsaturated fats
acts like a saturated fat in the body; resistant to rancidity; raise bl cholesterol levels hydrogentated fats
stick margine; commerical fats used for baking and frying hydrogenated fats
no caloric value vit and minerals
water soluble; cannot be stored in the body vitamins
types of water soluble vitamins b vit, vit c, folic acid, vit b12, vit c
folate deficiency neural tube defects, macrocytic anemia, elevated homocysteine levels
cobalamin; essential for nervous system function; found in animal products vit b12
antioxidant properties, aids in wound healing, tissue growth and maintenance, and immune function, helps increase iron absorption vit c
scurvy, gingivities or bleeding gums vit c deficiency
supplied by the fat in foods; stored in adipose tissue fat soluble vitamins; vit d, e, a, k
healthy vision, immune function; health of skin and reproductive and tissue; yellow fruits & vegs, milk, liver, egg yolk vit a
promotes absorptio of Calcium, liver, fortified dairy products, fish oils vit d
protects cell membranes and tissues from oxidation,; promotes functio nof a helathy circulatory system; normal development of nerves & muscles; nuts and sees, veg oils vit e
blookd clotting and bone metabolism; green leafy veg; intestinal bacteria vit k
excess is stored in the body and can cause an imbalance minerals
cellualr functioning, regulating fl, nerve transmission and muscle contraction; may prevent High BP; tomatoes (skin), leafy green veg potassium
responsible for e metabolism, o2 transport; liver, DLV Fe
builds RBCs, immune system, essential in healing; beef, peanut butter; legumes zinc
60% of adult weight; 80% infant wt is composed of water
fiber older children, adolescents and adults need 20 - 35 g qd
reduces bl cholesterol levels, reduces rish of some GI disorders fiber
insoluble fibers- vegetables, wheat, and whole grains
soluble fiber- fruit, oats, barley, legumes
slows the rate of digestion, descreases rate of bl sugar absorption and cholesterol levels soluble fiber
aids in digestion and helps promote regularity (roughage) natural laxative; skins of fruit and root vegs insoluble fiber
nutrient concerns of vegetarians protein; calcium; iron; zinc; vit b12
dietary guidelines for american include people 2 and older
how many cups of milk qd should be consumed 3
extras should make up _ to _ cal qd 100-300
what do these ranges represent in regards to physical activity 30 min qd; 60 min qd; 60-90 min qd reduce rish of chronic disease; manage body wt; sustain wt loss
what are the proper wt gaining ranges for normal wt; overwt; obese; underwt 25-30lbs' 15-25lbs; 15lbs; 28-40lbs
nutrient considerations for preg women cal; protein; vit and mineral
what are the three main vit and minerals to consider for preg women folic acid, iron, calcium
during _ and _ trimesters a woman should consume _ additional cal qd 2nd and 3rd ; 300
how much protein should a preg woman consume a day at least 60g (8 oz)
when should a woman consume 400mcg and 600mcg of folic acid 400 before pregnancy / 600 during pregnancy
neural tube defects, spinal bifida, anencephaly results from a deficiency of folic acid
how much Calcium does a preg woman need 1000mg qd
how much iron does a preg woman need 27mg qd during 2nd and 3rd trimester
what should you suggest to combat nausea and vomiting crackers and dry toast; limit food with strong odors; eat small frequent meals, take multivit before bedtime
what should you suggest to combact heartburn eat small frequent meals, dont drink liquids with meals, avoid high fat or fried foods; wait 30 min before lying down after meals
preg wom should consume how much fluids a day 8-12 cups
when is gestational diabetes dx 24 and 28 weeks of gestation
preg women should avoid (4) substances smoke, durgs, herbal supplements, and alcohol
no more than this amount of caffine should be consumed qd by a preg woman 200-300mg
baby less likely to be overfed; promotes good jaw/tooth development are reasons for- breastfeeding
lactating women require and additional- 500 cal qd
birth wt should double by _months and triple by _months 4 to 6 month ; 12 months
no additional food or water is necessary if- mother is breastfeeding or using fortified formula
iron-fortified cereal for infacts (rice, oats, barley) is used during this age rage and start with samll protions (1-2TBSP) 4-6 months
strained single veg, then strained single fruits is used during this age range 5-7 months
strained & ground single meats, strained juices **crackers and dry cereals, strips of toast, cheese is used during this age range 6-8 months
finger foods, chopped meats, soft table foods are used during this age range 8-12 months
childhoot includes ages 13 months to 12 years
common dietary inadequacies in adolesence include- Fe, calcium, vit A & C, folic acid
supply fluid, electrolytes, and e in a form that requires minial digestion and stimulation of the GI tract clear liquid diet
uses include: dx test and bowel prep; first feeding postop; temp food intolerance clear liquid diet
clear and strained fruit juices; coffe and tea; inadequate nutrition; 3 days max clear liquid diet
transitional diet from clear liq to solid food full liq diet
Foods include; milk, strained cream soups, puddings and custards; poor nutrition; 5 day max full liq diet
purpose: provide food and fl for pt who are unable to chew, swallow, or tolerate solid foods; adq nutrition blenderized liq diet
purpose; provide texture-modified foods that require minimal chewing for head and neck sx; dental problem; anatomical esophageal strictures, may be a transitional diet; no raw frutis and vegs, seeds, nuts, dried fruits, adq nutrition mechanically altered diet
purpose; adq e, nutrients and fl in a consistency safely tolerated by the individual; prevent dehydration, choking and aspiration pneumonia for pt with an impared swallowing ability; neurological illnesses, sx procedure, anticancer therapy; stimulate swa dysphagia diet
stimulate swallowing reflex, moist foods and/or thickened beverages; adq nutrition dysphagia diet
provide adq e and nutrients to support tissue healing following sx,mini reflux, early satiety, dumping syndrome and wt loss postgastrectomny diet
six small feeding qd, omit trigger foods, beverages 30 min before or after meals, limit high fat foods and simple cho intake; adq nutri. postgastrectomy diet
minimize the risk of obstruction; prevent fl and electrolyte imbalances; crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, diverticulosis, intestinal trauma ostomy diet
four to six small meals qd, gradually incorporate soluble fiber, fl 8 - 10 cups qd, avoid foods that cause gas and odors; adq nutri. ostomy diet
reduce the frequency and volume of fecal output; prevent blockage of stenosed GI tract; ulcerative colitis, crohn's disease, diverticulitis, stenosis of intestine, trans diet postop fiber restricted diet
< 10 g qd, limit fresh fruit and vegs, whole grains, legumes, nuts and seeds, popcorn; adq nutri. fiber restriced diet
increase fecal bulk and promote regularity; normalize bl lipid levels, slow glucose absorption; divertiular diease, constipation, diabetes, obesity, IBS, crohn's disease hypercholesterolemia; adq nutri. 20-35 g qd High fiber diet
prevent or reduce GI symptoms of bloating, flatulence, cramping, nausea, and diarrhea associated with consumption; adq nutri. lactose intolerance diet
relieve symp of diarrhea, steatorrhea, flatulence, and abd pain; liver and gallbladder, pancreas, intestinal mucosa, lymphatic diease, malabsorption syndromes; <25 g < 50g; adq nutri. fat restricted diet
provide e and nutri. in excess of usual reuirement in order to imporve overall nutri. status; promote wt gain; optimize individual's ablility to repond to medical tx hi-cal; hi-pro diet
slow the build-up of wastes in the blstream and control symps associated with kidney failure; restriced ina ll or some of protein, NaCl, K, phosphorus, and fl renal diet
What are the number indications of BMI levels 30+ obesity; 25-29.9 overwt; 18.5-24.9 norm wt
3,500 cal = 1lb
to lose wt subtract _cal/day from diet and exercise 250
Sx intervention for obesity is allowed when- BMI of 40+ or BMI >35 plue one or more co-morbidities realted to obestity
Diabetes Mellitus (DM) 5th dealiest diease in and leading cause of blindness and renal failure in US.
type 1 Diabetes pancreas is not producing any insulin, insulin dependent for life
type 2 diabetes insufficient insulin produced by the pancreas or the body does not properly use insulin
1 cho choice = 15 grams of cho
for diabetic person 3 servings of vegs = 1 cho choice
what are the functions of cholesterol and where is it concentrated in the body make cell membrances, vit d, and hormones; liver, spinal cord, adrenal glands, skin, gall bladder
what are the ranges for cholesterol norm: <200mg/dl ; HDL: >40mg/dl LDL: <100mg/dl triglycerides: <150mg/dl
what are the recommended intakes of tot fat; cholesterol; fiber 25-35% qd <200mg/dl qd 20-30g qd
Guidelines for a healthy heart: meat, fish, and poultry consumption 6oz qd
Guidelines for a healthy heart: egg yolk 3-4 per week
Guidelines for a healthy heart: dairy products 2-3 serv. qd
Guidelines for a healthy heart: fruits and vegs 2-4 and 3-5 qd
DASH guidelines; limit nacl to 2400-3000mg qd fruits and vegs consupmtion 8-10 servings
DNI may affect absorption-food in stomach can incre or decre drug absorption, distribution-decre albumin level may incre serum drug levels, metabolism- alteratio of metabolism resulting in incre serum drug levels excertion- alt of ren exc and aff drug level
antibiotics decrease vit _ with prolong use and should not be taken with ca, fe, dairy products, antacids, multivit and min supp, iron supp k
avoid grapefruit with anticonvulsants, antidepressants, ca channel blockers, cholesterol lowering meds, hiv meds, viagra
what are the goals of nutrition support prevent malnutrition restore optimal nutritional status, aid in recovery
four disciplines of the NST physician, dietitian, pharmacist, nurse
when should one choose tube feeding when all or part of the GI tract is functioning
tube feeding can be used for _ or _ term short or long
What are the indications for tube feeding- during periods of increased nutrition needs, difficulties chewing or swallowing, sedated or comatose pts, during periods of moderate malabsorption
nasoenteric tube routes nasogastric, nasoduodenal, nasojejunal
what are the 3 types of ostomy placements esophagostomy, gastrostomy, jejunostomy
what are the two types of percutaneous tube placements- peg ; pej
what are three ways to admin tube feeding continuous, intermittent, bolus
steady flow of formulat at a predetermined rate; 12-24 hrs; admin into the stomach, duodenum, or jejunum; critically ill continuous feeding
infusion over 30-60 min several times a day usually via gravity bag; 1-2 cans; admin into the stomach intermittent feeding
rapid infusion several times per day via syringe; 1-2 cans; admin stomach only; used with the most stable patients bolus feeding
Enteral nutri. formulas-oral supplements ensure, boost
Enteral nutri. formulas-general purpose jevity, fibersource
Enteral nutri. formulas-nutri. dense ensure plus
Enteral nutri. formulas- elemental formual broken down, vivonex,peptamen
Enteral nutri. formulas-modular microlipid
what does PPN and TPN stand for peripheral parenteral nutrition / total parenteral nutrition
PPN is used for _ term and _ nutrition requirement short/ conservative
TPN is administered through __, for _ term and _ nutrition requirements large central vein, long, higher
Created by: hooah