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Unit I

Intro to Anatomy & Physiology

anatomical position An erect body stance with the eyes directed interior
Anatomy The branch of science concerned with the structure of the body and the relationship of its organs.
Anterior Toward the front; the opposite of posterior
abdominal cavity The portion of the trunk between the diaphragm and pelvis.
Axillary The depressed hollow commonly called the armpit.
Antecubital of or relating to the region of the arm in front of the elbow
Cell The structural and functional unit of an organism; the smallest structure capable of performing all the functions necessary for life.
Digestion The process by which larger molecules of food substance are broken down mechanically and chemically into smaller molecules that can be absorbed.
Effector A gland or muscle cell innervated by a motor neuron
Metabolism The sum total of the chemical changes that occur within a cell.
Organism An individual living creature.
Organ A structure consisting of two or more tissues that performs a specific function.
Physiology The science that deals with the study of body functions.
Receptor A sense organ or a specialized distal end of a sensory neuron that receives stimuli from the environment.
Tissue An aggregation of similar cells and their binding intercellular substance
Deep father from the body surface
Distal away from an attached base
Inferior Below; at a lower level
Lateral away from the body’s midline
Medial toward the midline of the body
Posterior the back; behind
Proximal toward an attached base
Superficial Located close to or on the body surface
Superior Toward the head or upper body regions
Caudal the tail
Ventral the belly side
Cephalic the head
Dorsal the back
Transverse Plane dividing into superior and inferior sections
Frontal Plane parallels the long axis of the body dividing the body into anterior and posterior sections
Sagittal Plane divides the body into left and right sections
Midsagittal Section a cut that passes along the midline and divides the body into left and right halves
Integumentary System protections from environmental hazards
Skeletal System support
Muscular System locomotion
Nervous System directing immediate responses to stimuli
Endocrine System directing long term changes in the activities of other organ systems
Cardiovascular System internal transport of cells and dissolved materials
Lymphatic System defense against infection and disease
Respiratory System delivery of air to site where gas exchange can occur between air and circulating blood
Digestive System processing of food and nutrients
Urinary System elimination of excess water
Reproductive System production of sex cells and hormones
Cranial Cavity encloses the brain
Spinal Cavity surrounding the spinal cord
Dorsal Body Cavity contains the cranial and spinal body cavities
Ventral Body Cavity surrounds developing respiratory
Diaphragm divides the ventral body cavity into the superior and inferior cavities
Positive Feedback the initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces the stimulus
Negative Feedback provides long-term regulatory control that results in relatively unchanging internal conditions
Control Center integration center
abdominopelvic cavity consists of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
pelvic cavity a body cavity that is bounded by the bones of the pelvis and contains reproductive organs and the urinary bladder
thoracic cavity surrounds and protects the lungs and heart
deltoid of or pertaining to the shoulder
gluteal of or pertaining to the buttock
lumbar of or pertaining to the lower back (loin)
occipital of or pertaining to the front of the skull
popliteal of or pertaining to the back of the knee
scapular of or pertaining to the shoulder blade
sural of or pertaining to the calf
vertebral of or pertaining to the back
brachial of or pertaining to the arm
buccal of or pertaining to the cheek
carpal of or pertaining to the wrist
cervical of or pertaining to the neck
digital of or pertaining to the fingers and toes
femoral of or pertaining to the femur
fibular of or pertaining to the shin
inguinal of or pertaining to the groin
nasal of or pertaining to the nose
oral of or pertaining to the mouth
orbital of or pertaining to the eye
patellar of or pertaining to the knee cap
pelvic of or pertaining to the pelvis
pubic of or pertaining to the pubis
sternal of or pertaining to the sternum
tarsal of or pertaining to the ankle
thoracic of or pertaining to the chest
umbilical of or pertaining to the navel
Crul of or pertaining to the leg
Homeostasis refers to the existence of a stable internal environment
Excretion elimination from the body
Created by: weberd