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anatomy qr2


forms rounded muscles mass of the shoulder deltioid
forearm muscle supinator
deep calf muscle soleus
tailor's muscle sartorius
posterior muscle of the arm triceps brachii
a rotator cuff muscle supraspinatus
quadriceps muscle vastus medialis
anterior leg muscle tibialis anterior
muscle located at the back of the knee popliteus
an anterior muscle of the arm brachialis
the orgin of this muscle is the arm, and the insertion of the radius brachioradialis
the medial or inner thigh muscle adductor longus
a hamstring muscle semitendinosus
muscle of the forearm extensor superficialis digitorum
a muscle of the buttocks gluteus maximus
the peripheral nervous system is comprised of the cranial and spinal nerves
the insula is found deep to this sulcus of the cerebral hemispheres. inferior to the frontal and parietal lobes lateral sulcus
the type of nerve cells that transmits electrical signals neurons
transmitting unit of a neuron axon
the type of nerve signals that travel toward the CNS afferent or sensory
connective tissue wrapping that covers a bundle or group of nerve fibers (fascicle) perineurium
the outer layer of tissue of the cerebral hemispheres the gray matter of the cerebral cortex
the corpus callosum is the largest part of this type of myelinated fiber tract of the cerebral hemispheres commissural fibers
what is the name of the tapered end of the spinal cord conus medullaris
where is the subarachnoid space found? between the arachnoid and pia mater
how many nerves are there in the cervical- brachial plexus 8
what is the internal layer of the dura mater of the brain? meningeal layer
the capillaries of the brain are some of the most permeable capillaries in the body false
what is the cranial nerve IV? trochlear nerve
only nerve to extend beyond the head and neck cranial nerve X (vagus)
the oculomotor nerve is cranial nereve III
how many pairs of cranial nerves are there in the PNS? 12
what is the group of nerves at the inferior end of the spinal cord called? cauda equina
study of the joints arthrology
based on amount of movement functional classification of joints
material that binds bones together and on presence of absence of a joint cavity structural classification of joints
immovable joints, common in axial skeleton synarthroses
slightly moveable joints, common in axial skeleton amphiarthroses
most freely moveable, common in appendicular skeleton diarthroses
bones united by cartiledge, lack a joint cavity cartilaginous joints
most moveable joints, all are diarthroses, each contain a fluid filled cavity synovial
ends of opposing bones are covered by hyline cartiledge. absorbs compression articular cartilidge
unique to synovial joints. holds small amount of fluid joint cavity
dense irregular connective tissue- strengthens joint fibrous capsule
lines joints, makes synovial fluid, covers internal joint surfaces outer layer of fibrous capsule
stores synovial fluid internal fibrous capsule
a viscous fluid similar to raw egg white, a filtrate of blood, contains glycoprotein molecules secreted by fibroblasts synovial fluid
thickend parts of the fibrous capsule or internal to the capsule reinforcing ligaments
occur in kneeand bones articulating have different shape articular disc or meniscus
a flattened fibrous sac lined by synovial membrane bursa
an elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon tendon sheath
most important factor in joint stability muscle tone
joint movement where one bone crosses the surface of the other gliding
decreases the angle between 2 bones flexion
increase in angle between bones exstension
moving the limb away from the midline abduction
moving a limb toward the midline adduction
moving a limb or finger so that it describes a cone in space circumduction
involves turning movement of a bone around its long axis medial rotation
forearm rotates leterally, palm faces anteriorly supination
forearm rotates medially, palm faces posteriorly pronation
lifting foot so its superior surface aproaches the shin dorsiflexion
depressing the foot pointing the toe plantar flexion
turning the sole medially inversion
turning the sole laterally exversion
nonangular movement of jutting out the jaw protraction
opposite movement to protraction retraction
lifting the body superiorly elevation
moving the elevated part inferionly depression
thumb touches the tips of other fingers opposition
shoulder ball and socket glenoid and humerous
ball and socket of the pelvis acetabullum and femur
study of muscles myology
function of muscles movement, maintence of posture, joint stabelization, heat generation
when long cells shorten and generate a pulling force contractability
electrical nerve impulses stimulates the muscle cell to contract excitability
can be stretched back to its orignial length by contraction of an opposing muscle extensibility
can recoil after being stretched elasticity
muscle is striated, voluntary skeletal
muscle lacks striations, involuntary smooth muscle
striated muscle and involuntary cardiac
dense irregular connective tissue surrounding the entire muscle epimysium
surrounds each fascicle. fibrous and connective perimysium
a fine sheath of connective tissue wrapping each muscle cell. mostly reticular fibers endomysium
lessmoveable part of the muscle orgin
more moveable part of the muscle insertion
direction the muscle is pulled insertion to orgin
short strands of connective tissue direct attachments
longer strands of connective tissue indirect attachments
orgin of the frontalis galea aponeurotica
insertion of the frontalis skin of the eyebrow and root of nose
action of the frontalis raises eyebrows
muscle of suprise frontalis
forms transverse furrows of the forehead frontalis
orgin of the occipitalis occipital bone
the insertion of the occipitalis galea aponeurotica
action of the occipitalis draws the scalp back
muscle that encircles the eye obicularis oculi
action of the orbicularis oculi closes the eye
muscle that forms crows feet obicularis oculi
action of the zygomaticus major raises lateral corners of the mouth upward
laughing muscle zygomaticus major
action of the zygomaticus minor raises lateral corners of the mouth upward
smiling muscle zygomaticus minor
lateral head of the Quadratus labii superiorus zygomaticus minor
action of the levator anguli oris raises the angle of the mouth
snaring muscle levator anguli oris
action of the depress anguli oris draws the angle of the mouth down
triangularis depress anguli oris
action of the risorius draws angle ofthe mouth backwards
false smiling muscle risorius
raises upper eyelids levator palpabrae superioris
compresses the cheek buccinator
trumpeter's muscle buccinator
draws the eyebrows down and in corrigator
frowning muscle corrigator
draws skin of the forehead down procerus
raises upper lip levator labii superioris
intermediate head of the quadratus levator labii superioris
dialates nostril and raises upper lip; common elevator levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
medial head of the quadratus levator labii superioris alaeque nasi
draws the lower lip down; quadratus depressor labii inferioris
protrudes the lower lip, wrinkles the chin mentalis
orgin of the temporalis temporal bone
insertion of the temporalis mandible
action of the temporalis closes the jaw
strongest chewing muscle temporalis
action of the masseter closes the jaw. aka chewing muscle
orgin of the SCM sternum and clavicle
insertion of the SCM mastoid process of the temporal bone
action of the SCM rotates and flexes the head
orgin of the platysma clavicle and pectoralis
insertion of the platysma mandible
shock and horror muscle platysma
action of the digastricus elevates the hyoid bone
action of the omohyoid depresses hyoid bone
chewing muscles that grind food pterygoid muscles
fan shaped muscle of the chest that inserts on the humerous and the action is arm adduction pectoralis major
muscles between the ribs that elevates the ribs in breathing external intercostals
muscle between the ribs that depress the ribs during breathing internal intercostals
phrenic muscle diaphram
muscle of the upper back that elevates, retracts, and rotates the scapula trapezius
lower back muscle that extends, adducts, and rotates the humerous latissimus dorsi
anteromedial abdominal muscles rectus abdominus
white tendon structures located at the midline linea alba
most superficail of theabdominal muscles that compress the abdomen external obliques
intermeediate abdominal muscle internal obliques
deepest of the ab muscles transverse abdominus
posterior abdominal wall muscle that flexes the thigh psoas major
rounded muscle mass of the shoulder that inserts at the deltoid tuberosity of the humerous and flexes, rotates and abducts the arm deltoid
muscle of the shoulder that adducts and rotates the arm teres major
rotator cuff muscles that rotates the arm and insert on the humerous supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
two headed muscle of the anterior arm that is used for forearm flexion biceps brachii
muscles of the anterior arm used for forearm flexion brachialis
muscle of the posterior arm used for forearm exstension triceps brachii
muscle of the anterior forearm used for wrist flexion flexor carpi radialis
muscle of the anterior forearm used for wrist flexion flexor carpi ulnaris
muscle of the anterior forearm that flexes the phalanges flexor digitorum superficialis
forearm muscles that flexes the forearm brachioradialis
forearm muscle for supination supinator
inner thigh muscles used for thigh adduction adductor longus
inner thigh muscle used for thigh adduction adductor magnus
anterior muscle of the thigh; longest muscle of the body;used for leg flexion and rotation (tailor's muscle) sartorius
anterior thigh muscle that extends the leg quadriceps
rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, vastus intermedius quadricep muscles
posterios thigh muscle that flexes the leg hamstring muscles
posterior knee muscle that rotates the leg popliteus
anterior leg muscle that is used for dorsiflexion tibialis anterior
superficial calf muscle that inserts on the posterior calcaneus used for plantar flexion gastronemius
calf muscle deep to gastronemius used for plantar flexion soleus
what is the command and control center of the body nervous system
what are the divisions of the nervous system CNS and PNS
what are the components of the CNS? brain and spinal chord
what are the components of the PNS? cranial nerves and spinal nerves
nerves that move away from CNS motor nerves
nerves that move toward CNS sensory nerves
receivers that branch from cell body dendrite
nerve fibers that transmit away from cell body axon
supporting cells nonexcitable and wrap neurons
neurons excitable and transmit electrical signals
layer of delicate tissue surrounding the axon endoneurium
connective tissue wrapping a nerve fascicle perineurium
whole nerve is surrounded by tough fibrous sheath epineurium
4 basic parts of the brain cerebral hemisphere, diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum
parts of the diencephalon thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus
brainstem raustral to caudal midbrain, pons, medulla oblingata
exspansions of the brain's central cavity ventricles
contain cerebral spinal fluid ventricles
where CSF is produced choroid plexuses of the ventricles
seperates frontal and parietal lobe central sulcus
seperates occipital from parietal parieto- occipital sulcus
seperates temporal lobe from parietal and frontal lobes lateral sulcus
gray matter. external layer cerebral cortex
deep to the cortex white matter
connect different parts of the same hemisphere association fibers
run vertically between the cerebral hemispheres of the brainstem and spinal cord projection fibers
found deep in white matter basal nuclei
most cranil nerves attach to this region brainstem
controls balance and muscle coordination cerebellum
dura matter of the meninges 2 layes- periosteal and menigeal layer
arachnoid matter of the meninges filled with csf
function of csf liquid cushion to the brain and spinal chord
blood brain barrier prevents most blood borne pathogens from entering the brain
inferior end of the spinal chord conus medullaris
spinal nerves that arise form the terminal end of the spinal chord cauda equina
anchor the spinal cord to vertebrae denticulate ligaments
how many cranial nerves 12
cranial nerve I olfactory
cranial nerve II optic
cranial nerve III innervates 4 extrinsic eye muscles
Cranial nerve IV trochlear. innervates an extrinsic eye muscle
cranial nerve V trigeminal. sensory innervation to face motor innervation to chewing muscles
Cranial nerve VI abducens. abducts eyeball
cranial nerve VII inervates muscle of the facial exspression; facial
cranial nerve VIII vestibulocochlear;hearing and balance
Cranial nerve IX glossopharyngeal; innervates tongue and pharynx
cranial nerve X vagus; mixed sensory and motor. "wanders" into thorax and abdomen
cranial nerve XI accessory nerve; part of the vagus
cranial nerve XII hypoglossal; inferior to the tongue
how many pairs of spinal nerves 31
cervival- brachial plexus 8
thoracic plexus 12
lumbar plexus 5
sacral plexus 5
coccygeal plexus 1
involuntary nervous system autonomic nervous system
fight, fright, flight. active during exercise, excitement, and emergencies sympathetic division
resting and digesting. concerned with conserving energy parasympathetic
Created by: kvulgaris