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pathology q2


study of bodily fluids clinical pathology
examination of a dead human body is autopsy, post morteum examination of the body, and necropsy
an acute disease is rapid onset with short duration
a disease caused by a pathogenic organism is infectious
the state or condition of being poisoned intoxication
disease caused by lack of an essential element deficency
a sudden increase in severity of signs and symptoms exacerbation
objective manifestation of a disease acute, symptom
change produced by a disease lesion
study of the cause of disease is etiology
the varius pathological processes indicating some disturbance in cell metabolism regressive tissue changes
enter into the healthy because of overflow infiltration
injuries degenerations
when coloring matters pass into the tissues and accumulate pigmentation
coloring matter is from normal pigment present in the body endogenous
pigment which entered the body from outside exogenous
orange yellowish pigment present in bile billirubin
digestive juice produced by the liver and is involved in lipid breakdown bile
billirubin collects in the tissues causing a yellowish discoloration of the skin, whites of eyes, and other areas jaundice or icterus
results from the hemolysis of red bloods cells post mortem stain
abnormal amounts of melanin accumulate in the tissues melanosis. freckle or mole are common examples
pigmentations caused by inhalation of dust are pneumoconiosis
pneumoconiosis caused by coal dust anthracosis. black lung disease
inhalation of stone dust silicosis
inhalation of cotton dust and related foreign materials byssinosis. mill fever or brown lung
general term referring to the deterioration of cells within the body due to changes which occur within the cytoplasm of cells and which affecttheir normal functions degeneration
fatty molecules are accumulationg within cells and have adverse effect on normal cellular function fatty degeneration. fatty liver. enlarged, yellowish, and greasy to the touch
waxy starchlike substance called amyloid is deposited in the tissues. matabollic disorder involving proteins amyloid diease
cellular swelling. given to the appearence cells take on when they are somewhat swollen and contain an abnormal amount of water cloudy swelling
condition in which calcium is deposited withing the tissues of the body with no attempt at bone formation pathological calcification
lesions of tuberculosis tubercles
decrease in size of a once normal body part atrophy
the body part never properly developes hypoplasia
normal atrophy mammory glands after milk production ceases, uterus after pregnancy, old age, thymus gland
may occur as result of various functional and structural problems which occur in different organs of the body pathological atrophy
common reasons for pathological atrophy inadequate nutrition, inadequate nervous system stimulation, disuse
the study of disease pathology
study of the structure and function of the body as it is affected by disease pathology
studies changes in the structure and function of the body which can be observed with the unaided eye gross pathology
studies changes which occur in cells of the body at the microscopic level microscopic, cellular, or histo- pathology
deals with general or broad disease processes, such as necrosis or inflammation, which may affectthe entire body or wide- spread tissues and organs general pathology
studies disease processes affecting individual body areas or systems, such as pathology of the respiratory system or disease of the skin special pathology
deals with the study of tissue which have been removed from the body for pathological study pathological anatomy ex. biopsy
if tissue is removed during surgery- during autopsy- biopsy; autopsy pathology
refers to study the funtional changes in the body resulting from disease physiological pathology
any change in the structure or function of the body as a result of injury to the tissues disease
gradual onset with a long duration chronic
an acute disease that ends in death fulminating disease
symptoms and signs of a disease reappear after a period of remission recurrent disease
a disease caused by a living microorganism infectious disease
disease in which are easily spread person to person contagious
refers to presence of macroscopic organisms on or in the body infestation
cause of disease is not know idiopathic
disease results from the nature of one's open working conditions occupational
diseases which are always present to some degree in a given area or community endemic
diseases which are found to occur only occasionally in a community sporadic
diseases which affect a much larger than normal number of people in a community at one time epidemic
disease which affect the majority of the population in a very large area, possibly even world wide pandemic
refers to the number of cases of a disease within a certain population at a given time prevelence
developement of a disease after birth acquired disease
congenital disease present at or before birth
a disease transmitted from parent to offspring. genetic diseases hereditary
a disease characterized by the precence of fever febrile disease
one which results from a physicians treatment of patient iatrogenic
any defect in formation, structure or position of a body part malformations or anaomalies
absence of a body part aplasia
underdevelopemnt of a body pary hypoplasia
a defect in the walls of the lower part of the spinal column spina bifada
excess number of fingers or toes polydactylism
protrusion of an organ through the wall of a body cavity in which it is contained hernia
an abnormal tract or chanel through the tissues connecting one body cavity with another fistula
a sac like structure containing fluid or a semi solid substance cyst
genetic defect resulting in various degrees of mental retardation, a dwarfed physique, and certain characteristics of the head and extremities Down's syndrome
any change produced by a disease lesion
diseases have readily identifiable characteristic lesions organic diseases
a disease with no apparent underlying organic disorder funtional disease
subjective manifestation of a disease. cannot be measured symptoms
objective manifestation of disease. can be measured sign
a group of signs and symptoms that occur together syndrome
the determination of what disease exists. analysis of patient history, signs, sympotoms, and results of tests ordered by the physician diagnosis
differential diagnosis the process by which a physician will rule out certain diseases with similar signs and symptoms so that an accurate determination can be made
prediction of the outcome of a disease prognosis
abatement; temporary or permanent disappearance of signs or symptoms remission
any unfavorable condition that may arise during a disease complication. ex: hemorrhage resulting from duodental peptic ulcer
the cause of the disease etiology
the developement of a disease, what it causes, what changes it produces, nd how it affects the structure pathogenesis
prediposing factors age, race, gender, genetics, occupation, enviroment
trauma cuts or bruises
physical agents radiation, electricity
chemical agents acids, alkalines, poison, drugs
living agents bacteria, viruses, parasites
deficency vitamins, minerals, hormones
allergens dust, pollen
remote afteraffects of disease. may appear 20 or 30 years after the acute stage sequelae
a disease that arises during the course of another disease intercurrent. example cancer patient has a heart attack
non pus forming non- suppurative disease
a disease that can be transmitted from one person to another communicable
a sate of hypersensativity of the immune system; an overreaction to a harmless substance called an allergen allergy
a disease with no apparent underlying organic disorder functional disease
when the host body produces antibodies against an antigen it is active immunity
cardinal manifestations of acute inflammation redness
exudate that contains blood hemorrhagic
white blood cell that are first to enter the area of injury neutrophil
an area of pus surrounded by a wall of inflammatory tissue abcess
localized area of necrosis in skin and mucous membranes ulcer
an elevation of skin containing pus pustule
furuncle boil
any new, abnormal growth of tissue in the body which serves no useful purpose a neoplasm
the study of neoplasms or tumors oncology
type of growth that is not neoplastic in nature hypertrophy
term used to descibe an increase in the size of a body part due to an increase in the size of the individual cells hypertrophy
when an organ increases in size due to the failure of another organ compensatory hypertrophy (kidney or lung)
an increase in the size of a body part due to an increase in the number of cells in that organ hyperplasia
endocrine glands produce hormones
replacement of one type of tissue in a major category by another type of tissue in that same category metaplasia
histological basis type of tissue from which the tumor arises
clinical basis how the tumor behaves and general characteristics
the more serious, life threatening type of tumor. normally refers to cancer malignant
non- cancerous benign
gorw by exspansion benign
grow by infiltration malignant
tumor that is often encapsulated benign
tumors generally not encapsulated malignant
tumor that does not spread from growth site benign
tumor that can spread from one body are to another. metastasis malignant
tumors that do not generally cause exstensive destruction of tissues benign
tumors that do cause great damage to surrounding tissues malignant
usually bear a fairly close resemblance to the tissue from which they originated benign
tumors that generally do not recur when surgically removed benign
tumors that often do recur after surgery malignant
tumors that are not generally fatal benign
the suffix oma refers to a tumor that is benign
used to identify malignancies of non- epithelial tissues, especially varius connective and muscle tissue tumors sarcoma
this ending designates malignancies of epithelial tissue carcinoma
tumors of the bone osteoma- benign; osteosarcoma- malignant
tumors of fibrous connective tissue fibroma- benign; fibrosarcoma- malignant
tumors of cartilage chondroma- benign; chondrosarcoma- malignant
tumors of fatty or adipose tissue lipoma- benign; liposarcoma- malignant
tumors of the vessels angioma- benign; angiosarcoma- malignant
tumors of the lymphatic vessels lymphangioma-benign; lymph- angio- sarcoma-malignant
tumors of blood vessels hemangioma- benign; hemangiosarcoma- malignant
tumors of lymphoid tissues or lymph nodes lymphoma- malignant; lymphosarcoma- benign "Exception"
form of lymphoma Hodgkin's disease
leukemia cancer of the blood; malignant; uncontrolled leukocytes or too much white blood cells
tumors of glandular epithelium adenoma- benign; adenocarcinoma- malignant
tumors of stratisfied squamous epithelium epithelioma- malignant; squamous cell carcinoma- malignant "exception"
basal cell carcinoma malignant
transitional cell carcinoma malignant. urinary tract cells
papilloma benign. may turn malignant
nevus mole. benign
melanoma malignant. "exception"
myoma tumors of the muscle- benign
smooth or involuntary muscle tissue leiomyoma
voluntary muscle tisse rhabdomyoma
myosarcoma malignant muscle umor
leiomyosarcoma smooth or involuntary muscle tissue
rhabdomyosarcoma voluntary muscle tissue
benign tumors of the nerve cells neuroma
malignant tuomr involving the neuroglia glioma
term given to any agent capable of causing cancer carcinogen
heredity, envriomental factors, occupational exposure to chemicals, prolonged irritation, viruses, hormones, important carcingogenic agents
Created by: kvulgaris