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micro q2


net movement of water across a semi- permiable membrane from high concentration of solvent molecules to an area of low concentration of solvent molecules osmosis
equal on outside of cell and inside of cell isotonic, will stay the same
low concentration on the outside high on the inside hypotonic, will burst
high concentration on the outside low concentration on the inside of a cell hypertonic, will shrivel
the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism metabolism
degradative, breakdown substances into smaller substances. produce energy catabolic
synthesis reactions and require more energy than they produce anabolic
biological catalyst enzymes
enzymes are specific in what they will catalyze lock and key method
substrate name as a prefix and suffix as "ase" format for naming enzymes
the loss of an enzymes 3D shape denaturization
temperature extremes, pH extremes, heavy metal ions, alcohol, and UV radiation things that denature proteins
removal or destruction of all forms of microbial life; destruction of pathogenic organisms sterilization
destruction of vegatative pathogens; destruction of pathogenic organisms disinfection
act of introducing disease or infectious microorganisms into or on normally sterile objects contamination
agent that destroys or kills microorganisms germicide
agent that destroys bacteria bacteriacide
agent that destroys fungus (mold and yeast) fungicide
destroys viruses virucide
kills insects insecticide
kills larva form of insects larvacide
use of poisonous fumes or gases to destroy living organisms fumigation
invasion of an animal or parasite infestation
bacteriostasis inhibitting growth of bacteria
sepsis microbial contamination
the absence of microbial contamination antisepsis
what is a physical method of microbial control? scrubbing
wich is more effective, moist or dry heat? moist
temperatures to kill microbial growth in mosit heat 100C in boiling water for ten min. 100C in freeflowing steam for thirty min. autoclave 15psi 121C fifteen plus min.
what is a form of dry heat? hot air sterilization oven 160- 170C for two plus hours
dessication absence of water
cold temperature bacteriostatic technique. enzyme activity deminsihes and microbail growth slows down considerably. only retards microbial growth. 0-4C
how does UV light disinfect? damages DNA affecting replication
most destructive color of light violet
oxidizing agents halogens
alter cellular enzymes and inhibit protein function halogens
hypochlorite and iodine halogens
denatures protein and is lipolytic alcohol
reducing agents aldehydes
inactivate proteins by forming covalent cross- links between proteins aldehydes
formalin and glutaraldehyde aldehydes
denature enzymes and lipolytic phenolic compounds
phenolitic derivative cresol
good antiseptic phenolytic derivative hexachlorophene
surface tension reducer quats
microbes that establish residence but do not produce disease under normal conditions normal flora
normal flora benefit the host by preventing overgrowth of harmful microorganisms microbial antagonism
when two or more different species or organisms live together in close association symbiosis
a symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other in uneffected commensalism
a form of symbiosis where both benefit mutualism
host is harmed and other benefits parasitism
living and benefitting from another with no harm synergism
mutualism, commensalism, parasitism symbiotic
organisms living in close nutritional relationships symbiotic
free living and relationships are not required for survival nonsymbiotic
study of nature and cause of disease pathology
study of the cause of disease etiology
the orgin of developement of a disease pathogenisis
the state or condition in which a body part is infected by pathogenic agent that multiplies infection
the act of introducing disease causing germs or infectious material into an area or substance contamination
the invasion of the body or an area by microscopic organisms infestation
subjective changes caused by disease that are felt by the patient but are not directly measurable symptoms
observable changes caused by a disease signs
group of signs and symptoms associated with a particular disease syndrome
the scienced that studies when and where a disease occurs epidemiology
a disease that must be reported notifiable disease
transmitted directly or indirectly person to person communicable
transmitted easily contagious
not transmitted person to person noncontagious
fraction of the population having a specific disease at a given time prevelence
disease occurs occasionally in a random or isolated manner sporatic
occurs continuously in a particular region endemic
attacks many people at the same time in the same area epidemic
world wide epidemic pandemic
rapid onset, severe symptoms, short duration acute
a disease of long duration chronic
disease in existance without mainfesting itself latent
germs lodging in at one point and staying there local infection
spreads throughout the body systemic infection
infection enters blood focal
bacteria in the blood bacteremia
multiplication of bacteria in the blood septicemia
viruses in the blood viremia
toxins in the blood toxemia
an acute infection that causes the initial illness primary infection
developes after the primary and weakens the host secondary infection
caused by two or more infections mixed infections
period before symptoms subclinical infection
arises from microorganisms from outside the body exogenous infection
produced or arising from within the body endogenous infection
developes during hospital stays nonocomial infection
organisms that harbor pathogens and transmit them to others carriers
do not exibit signs of symptoms passive
exibit signs or symptoms active
have not returned to original sate of health convalescent
longer than 1 year chronic
disease carried by wild or domestic animals passed to humans zoonoses
innatomate objects that spread infection fomites
skin and mucus membranes, respiratory tract, digestive tract, genitourinary tract, placenta portals of entry
when microorganisms are deposited directly into the skin or mucus membranes parenteral route
most frequently travelled portal of entry and exit respiratory tract
wehicles of exit for pathogens feces, urine, tears, pus, semen, vaginal secretions, sputum, saliva, blood
mechanical nonspecific defense mechanisms skin, mucus membrane, normal flora, tears and blinking, ciliary escalator, flushing action of urine
physiological defenses inflamation, fever, phagocytosis
chemical defenses body secretions,lysozymes, gastric juices, interferons, complement system
digestive enzymes that break down microorganism lysozymes
contain HCl that inhibits the growth of microorganisms gastric juices
defend against viruses inferons
serum proteins that participate in lysis of forgein cells, inflamation, phagocytosis complement system
chain of infection includes causative agent (pathogen), resevoir in which the pathogen can survive (human host), portal of exit (to leave the resevvoir), mode of transmission (from resevoir to new host), portal of entry (to enter new host), susceptable host
virulence of organisms, portal of entry, number of organisms present, resistance to the host factors influencing the occurance of disease
relativ epower and the degree of pathogenicity possesed by the organisms to produce disease virulence
reduction of microorganism's virulence by diluting or weakening its pathogenicity attenuation
sum total of body mechanisms that interpose barriers to the progress of invasion, multiplication of infectious agents, or damage by their toxic products resistance
being susceptible; having little resistance to a disease or pathogen susceptability
bacteria toxins poisonous
abitlity to produce toxins toxigenicity
presence of toxins in the blood toxemia
effects of toxins on host fever,circulatory system disturbances, diarrhea, shock, inhibit protein synthesis, nervous system disorders, damage to cell mebranes
2 primary types of of bacteria toxins exotoxins and endotoxins
primarily produced by Gram- positive bacteria exotoxins
kills host cells and affect their function cytotoxins
interfer with normal nerve impulses neurotoxins
affect host cells lining the gastrointestinal tract enterotoxins
provide immunity to exotoxins antitoxins
part of the outer membrane of Gram- negative endotoxins
heat resistant endotoxins
bacterial toxin that can destroy white blood cells that are very active in phagocytosis Leukocidins
cause lysis of red blood cells which transport oxygen to cells in the body hemolysins
bacterial enzyme that causes blood to clot coagulase
bacterial enzyme that prevents blood from clotting fibrinolysin
breaks down hyaluronic acid; helps microorganisms spread from their initial site of infection hyaluronidase
acts on the oils and fats secreted by sebaceous glands lipase
bacterial enzyme that breaks down the protein collagen fibers in connective tissue collagenase
for attachment pili
produced by microorganisms endospores and capsules
specific resistance immunity
resistance to disease that we are born with innate immunity
refers to the resistance to the diease that a host developes during the course of a lifetime acquired immunity
antigens enter tho body naturally; by exposure to someone with the disease naturally acquired active immunity
someone else produces antibodies and they are transferred to another person naturally acquired passive immunity
present in a vaccine or artificailly introduced to the individual artificially acquired active immunity
preformed antibodies in immune serum are introduced into the body artificailly acquired passive immunity
when a person is exsposed to antigens and antibodies are then formed active immunity
antibodies produced by someone else and then transfered to another individual passive immunity
who is more prone to contracting an illness children, elderly, and immunocomprimised
2 main parts of the immune system hummoral immunity and cell mediated immunity
produced and mature in red bone marrow. activated by antigenic encounter b cells
produced in red bone marrow, mature in thymus and are activated by antigenic encounter t cells
most prevelent. readily cross the walls of the blood vessels and enter tissue fluids IgG
large size prevents it from enterin the surrounding tissue. first to appear on site of the antigen expsure IgM
most abundant. mucus membranes. mmucus, saliva, tears, breatmilk IgA
primarily on surface of B cells IgD
antibody in allergic reactions IgE
use living but less virulent strains of microorganisms attenuated whole- agent vaccine
use microorganisms that have been killed inactive whole- agent vaccines
use inactive toxins toxoids
use antigenic fragments subunit vaccines
combine substances when to try and produce a stronger immune response than is produced by a substance when it is present on its own conjugated vaccine
only remains effective until the DNA is degraded nucleic acid vaccine (DNA vaccine)
organisms gaining access by penetrating the tissues of the skin or mucous membranes by punctures, bites, cuts, and other wounds parenteral route
a form of adherence of the pathogen to a receptor on the host cell is not an important mechanism of pathogenicity False
a bacterial toxin that exerts its effects when Gram- negative bacteria die and their cell walls undergo lysis the toxin is part of the gram- negative cell wall endotoxins
part of our bodies first line of defense against invading microorganisms normal flora
a local physiological response that is one of our bodies second lines of defense against invading microorganisms inflammation
endotoxins are lipopolysaccharides
interferons are produced by the host to counter _____ infections viral
the type of immunity that primarily involves B lymphocytes and antibody formation is called hummoral immunity
the most prevelent antibody in the body IgA
most prevelent in the blood serum IgG
the B and T cells that are not involved in fighting the current infection, but will be available in an anamnestic response are called memory cells
effector cells fight current infection
Created by: kvulgaris