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68WM6 A&P 2

Key Terms

Movement of a body part away from the midline. Abduction
Movement of a body part toward the midline. Adduction
A thin layer of cartilage covering each epiphysis. Articular Cartilage
Moves the distal end of a bone in a circle. Circumduction
The outer layer of bone that is hard and dense. Compact Bone
An oval projection that fits into an elliptical socket. Condyle
A sharp edge. Crest
Or Shaft - A hollow tube made of hard, compact bone. Diaphysis
A thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity. Endosteum
Catilage between the epiphyses and the diaphysis. Epiphyseal Plate
The ends of bones. Epiphyses
Increasing the angle of a joint, as in straigtening a bent elbow. Extension
Reduces the angle of a joint, as in bending an elbow. Flexion
Areas where ossification is incomplete or known as soft spots. Fontanel
The process of blood cell formation. Hematopoiesis
The hollow area inside the diaphysis of a bone containing yellow bone marrow. Medullary Cavity
A large depression on the posterior surface of the humerus. Olecranon Fossa
Bone reabsorbing cells. Osteoclasts
Living bone cells. Osteodytes
A bone-forming cell. Osteoblasts
A strong fibrous membrane covering a long bone everywhere except at joint surfaces. Periosteum
Soft connective tissue inside the hard walls or some bones. Red Bone Marrow
Spins one bone relative to another, as in rotating the head at the neck joint. Rotation
Spaces or cavities within some of the cranial bones. Sinus
The porous bone in the end of the long bone. Spongy Bone
An immovable joint. Suture
Provides a rigid framework and support structure for the whole body. Purpose of Skeletal System
*Support *Protection *Movement *Storage *Hematopoiesis Function of Skeletal System
Skull consists of (A) bones. (B) cranial bones and (C) facial bones. A)22 B)8 C)14
Anterior portion of the skull above the eyes. Frontal Bone
One ______ bone is located on each side of the skull just behind the frontal bone. Parietal Bone
The bone that forms the back of the skull and the base of the cranium. Occipital Bone
The bones that form parts of the side and the base of the cranium. Temporal Bones
The bone that forms the central part of the floor of the cranium. Sphenoid Bone
The bone that forms part of the roof of the nasal cavity. Ethmoid Bone
Contractile protein found in the THIN myofilaments of skeletal muscle. Actin
When stimulated, a muscle fiber will contract fully or not at all. All or None
Those having opposing actions. Ex: Muscles that flex the upper arm are _____ to muscles that extend it. Antagonists
Broad fiberous sheets of connective tissue, in scalp, hand, back, around spin, and around abs. Aponeuroses
When aponeuroses is wrapped around the end of a muscle it is called _____. Fascia
Wasting away of tissue; decreasing in size of a part. Atrophy
Synovial fluid-filled sac located between some tendons and bones, making movement easier. Bursa
Increase in size, structure, or function. Hypertrophy
"equal measure"; type of muscle contraction in which muscle does not shorten and no movement is produced. Isometric
Type of muscle contraction in which muscle length changes, producing movement of a joint. Isotonic
The muscle mainly responsible for producing a particular movement. Prime Mover
Basic functional or contractile unit mover without movement. Sacromere
Muscle that assists the prime mover with movement. Synergists
Inflamation of the tendon sheath. Tenosynovitis
Name the three types of muscle tissue? *Skeletal *Cardiac *Smooth
This type of muscle has unique dark bands called intercalated disks. Cardiac Muscle
Movement of this type of muscle is involuntary, lacks striations under microscope, and is found in blood vessel walls and hollow visceral structures. Smooth Muscle
This muscle is striated, voluntary, and makes up of 40-50% of body weight. Skeletal Muscle
Attachment to the bone that remains relatively stationary when a skeletal muscle contracts. Origin
Point of attachment to the bone that moves when a skeletal muscle contracts. Insertion
Muscle attaches to the bones by _____. Tendons
Thick band of tissue that covers the bones on the bottom of the foot. Plantar Fascia
Type of filaments that have myocin? Thick
Type of filaments that have actin? Thin
Sacromeres are separted from each other by dark bands called ______. Z Lines
The first thing needed for a muscle group to contract is _______________. Electrical Stimulus (nervous system)
The electrical stimulus in muscle contraction triggers in the release of what positively charged cat ion? Calcium
The three primary functions of skeletal muscle are _____, ______, and _________. Movement, Posture or muscle tone, and Heat Production
What specialized muscle contractions enable us to maintain body position and produce no movement of body part? Tonic Contractions
If muscle cells are stimulated repeatedly without adequate periods of rest, the strength of the muscle contractions decrease, resulting in _______. Fatigue
COntractions in the absence of adequate oxygen produces _______, which contributes to muscle soreness. Lactic Acid
What is the specialized point of contact between a nerve ending and the muscle fiber it innervates? Neuromuscular Juntion
What is the combination of a motor neuron with the muscle cell or cells it innervates. Motor Unit
Term meaning the minimal level of stimulation required to cause a muscle fiber to contract. Threshold Stimulus
Once stimulated by a threshold stimulus, a muscle fiber will contract completely , a response called _____________. All or None
Contractions are a quick, jerky movement and do not play a significant role in normal muscular activity; they are a single contraction of muscle fibers caused by a single threshold stimulus. Twitch
Contractions are sustained and stead muscular contractions caused by a series of stimuli bombarding a muscle in rapid succession. Tetanic
Exercise involving contraction of muscles against heavy resistance. Increases number of microfilaments in each muscle fiber, does not increase muscle fibers. Strength Training
Increases muscle's ability to sustain moderate exercise over a long period. Allows more efficient delivery of oxygen and nutrients, and does not result in muscle hypertrophy. Endurance Training
The kissing muscle, pucker lips. Orbicularis Oris
The muscle surrounding the eye. Orbicularis Oculi
The muscle that allows you to raise your eyebrows and frown. Frontal Muscle
Muscles that elevate the corners of the mouth and lips, smiling muscle. Zygomaticus
Muscle that closes mouth and produces chewing movements Mastication
Muscle that flexes head. Sternocleidomastoid
Muscles that elevate the shoulder and extends head. Trapezius
Muscle that flexes the upper arm. Pectoralis Major
Muscle that extends the upper arm. Latissimus Dorsi
Muscle that abducts the upper arm. Deltoid
Muscle that flexes the forearm. Biceps Brachii
Muscle that extends the forearm. Triceps Brachii
External Oblique, Internal Oblique, Transversus Abdominis, and Rectus Abdominis ARE EXAMPLES OF MUSCLES OF THE ______? Trunk
Intercostal and Diaphragm are EXAMPLES OF _________ MUSCLES. Respirator
Iliopsoas, Gluteus maximus, and Adductor muscles are muscles of the ____________. Lower Extremities
Hand position with the palm turned to the anterior position. Supination
Occurs when the palm faces posteriorly. Pronation
Results in elevation of the dorsum or top of the foot. Dorsiflexion
Results in the bottom of the foot being directed downward. Plantar flexion
Calcium is stored in the ______. Bones
The most abundant ion in the body. Calcium
RED or YELLOW: Which bone marrow is responsible for Hematopoiesis? RED
Created by: swiget