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nutrition hondros

midterm review

QuestionAnswer
What does the holistic model of health focus on? Life style and personal choice
Carbs should provide how much of daily kcal intake? 45%-65%
What is the body's main storage form of carbs? glycogen
What is the body's secondary source of heat and energy? Fats
What is the primary function of proteins? tissue building
What scientific system of nutritional standards is used in the United States? Dietary Reference Intake (DRI)
What new component/s of the My Pyramid food guidance system was/were added in 2005? physical activity, vertically banded food groups, discretionary calories
What percentage of the population does the estimated average requirement of a nutrient cover? 50%
Which mineral is necessary for the production of hemoglobin? iron
What is a possible sign of malnutrition? obesity
Plants convert solar energy into carbs in which of the following processes? photosynthesis
What is the abbreviation for carbs that is typically used in medication charts, representing the three elements that make up a carb? CHO
Which polysaccharide is stored in the liver and muscles of animals and is broken down into smaller glucose units when needed for energy? glycogen
Which of the following is a member of the disaccharide class of carbs? a)glucose b)sucrose c)glycogen d)starch sucrose
The acids that are produced from fat breakdown when there is insufficient amount of carb intake are called? ketones
Which of the following foods has the highest amount of insoluble fiber in a typical serving? a)oatmeal c)peach c)rice peach
Carbs provide how much energy per gram? 4 kcals/g
What enzyme helps break down carbs in the duodenum during digestion? pancreatic amylase
Of the following ethnic group, which one is the most likely to suffer from some degree of lactose intolerance? a)english b)swedish c)hispanic Hispanic
Based on the most recent DRIs, carbs should make up what percent of an adults daily caloric intake? 45-65%
Fats are.. either liquid or solid
What is the name for three fatty acids and a glycogen backbone? triglycerides
A ployunsaturated fat is defined as a fatty acid that has two or more unfilled spaces of hydrogen
Linolenic acis is also known as omega 3 fatty acid
How much energy does fat provide when used by the body? 9 kcals/g
Which of the following is a major source of monosaturated fat in the diet? a)dairy products b)poultry c)veg oils d)eggs veg oil
According to the FDA, which of the following must be provided about fats on a food label? amount of trans-fatty acids
The recommended amount of saturated fat in a person's diet should not exceed which percentage of daily calories? 10%
What does the gallbladder release into the small intestine to aid in fat digestion? bile
An excessive amount of fat in the diet can increase the risk for.. cancer
All proteins are made up of building units that are known as amino acids
Which of the following amino acids is an indispensable amino acid? a)phenylamine b)serine c)cysteine d)asparagus phenylamine
When refering to amino acids, what does the term "conditionally indispensable" mean? they are indispensable under certain conditions such as illness or stress but cannot be normally synthesized by the body
The process in which amino acids are make into proteins is called? anabolism
Protein provides the main source of which element in the diet? hydrogen
What is the primary function of protein in the body? Builds and repairs damaged tissue
A protein food that carries all nine of the indispensable amino acids in a quantity necessary to meet the body's need is a complete protein
A vegetarian who eats a combination of plant foods and dairy foods, such as cheese and milk is considered which type of vegetarian? lacto-vegetarian
What activates pepsinogen to pepsin in the stomach? hydrochloric acid
Of the following people, who would have the highest protein requirements? a 6 month old infant
The process by which nutrients are taken into the vascular and lymphatic system is... transport
Which substance is responsible for breaking down food in the digestion process? enzymes
The primary function of mucus in the digestion process is to protect the tissue of the GI tract
One of the common causes of heartburn is... improper function of the gastroesophogeal sphincter
Which enzyme is responsible for breaking down fats during digestion? pancreatic lipase
Bioavailibility is best defined as how well the body can absorb a nutrient
An absorption process in which particles move outward in all directions from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration is known as simple diffusion
Which of the following type of substance are transported via the lymphatic substance fat molecules
The process in which large substance are broken down to form small particles in cells is called metabolism
If the following substances were present in the body at the same time, which would be metabolized first? carbohydrates
Which of the following is an example of voluntary body work? a)swimming b)respiration c)digestion d) circulation Swimming
Which nutrient is the body's primary source of fuel? Carbs
What is the fuel density of fat? 9 kcals/g
Which nutrient has the highest caloric density? fat
How many calories make up a KCAL> 1000 calories
Where does the energy that our body needs come from? stored fat
Which source of stored energy that our bodies need come from? glycogen
Which factor has the greatest effect on basal metabolic rate? lean muscle mass
Which of the following condition decreases the BMR? hypothyroidism
What is the most variable component of total energy expenditure for any given person? physical activity
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) is the.. daily intake that meets the health needs of almost all individuals in a specific group
What are the two metric measures used for vitamins in the US? mg, mcg
Enzymes and coenzymes control specific chemical reactions by acting as necessary catalyst
What important discovery did Dr. Frederich Hopkins make? accessory factors present in natural foods are essential for life
Fat-soluble vitamins are dependent upon dietary fat for absorption and transport
The basic function of vitamin K is blood clotting process
Cobalamin is the chemical name for which vitamin? B12
A phytochemical is a plant compound
Biochemical individuality means the body's chemical composition is different for everyone
Of the 54 known elements in the periodic table, how many are essential to human life? 25
Which of the following is a major mineral? a)fluoride b)chloride c)iron d)zinc Chloride
The presence of which of the following can bind minerals in the GI tract and inhibit or limit mineral absorption? a)phytochemicals b)Vit A and C c) nuts d)fiber, phylates, oxalates fiber, phylates, oxalates
Which of the following is a trace mineral? a)fluoride b)chloride c)sodium d)sulfer Fluoride
Approx what percent of the normal adult body weight is calcium? 1-2%
Which mineral is one of the most plentiful in the body? sodium
What is today's most prevalent nutritional problem? iron deficiency anemia
Zinc interacts with which of the following in the pancreas? insulin
Which hormone regulates the uptake of iodine from the blood? thyroid-stimulating hormone
Minerals are classified according to their.. relative amounts in the body
The state of dynamic equilibrium in the body is called... homeostasis
How many milliliters of water our needed for every 1000 KCALS in the diet? 1000ml
Water comprises how much of an infants total body weight? 70%-75%
Which organ excretes the largest amount of body water? kidneys
What two solute particles primary influence water balance? Electrolytes and plasma proteins
The process of diffusion is when solute particles move from.. an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
Which digestive secretions is produced in the greatest volume during a 24 hour period? intestinal secretions
Where in the body is aldosterone secreted? adrenal glands
a pH of 7.4 is considered... alkaline
Which organs primary control acid base balance? lungs and kidneys
The leading cause of unintended weight loss in the elderly is what? depression
What factors have an affect on the appetite in the elderly? decrease in taste, smell, and vision
What is the fastest growing population group in the US? Hispanic-American
Which age group is characterized by independency, forming new relationships, and significant personal growth? young adult
Which age sub division of older adukt is considered elderly? 75--84 years old
Which group of adults is contributing to the productive work force and redefining what it means to be a senior? young old adult
Menopause can result in an increase in body fat
A major contributing factor to loss of skeletal muscle mass is... lack of exercise
The primary nutrition problem of the older adults is... lack of sufficient nutrients
The basic fuel necessary to supply energy needs in the older adult is primary... carbs
The health of a community depends on which of the following factors? the safety of available foods and the water supply
The phrase "percent daily value" on a food product label can be used to determine... the overall value of a specific nutrient
Diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, fever and other flu like symptoms are symptoms of.... food-borne illness
What is the most important food sanitation factor when purchasing food? the buying and storing of food
Food label regulation are the responsibility of the... FDA
Flavoring agents are one example of... food additives
WIC stands for... women, infant and children
What often prevents the consumer from obtaining adequate food supplies? poverty
What usually results in food borne illness? the presence of various organisms
Which environmental food contaminant is found mostly in older homes and rental houses? Lead
In Judaism, what food is kosher to eat? sheep
According to Muslim beliefs about seafood, one can eat all fish
"Halal" in Islam is the same in the Jewish practice of kosher
During Ramadan, fasting is mandated for... everyone
One concern about the changes in the contemporary Native American Diet is... eating high fat and high salt snacks
Cajun foods.... are spicy and include a lot of seafood
What food is not commonly used in Asian cooking? Cheese
Name a reason why many African Americans dont use dairy in their diet? Many are lactose intolerant
Acculturation refers to... changes in dietary intake, lifestyle, and disease risk to match those of a new country
Snacking... is acceptable if it fits with the daily meal plan
Created by: 100001097722136