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Science Notes #20

DNA replication and Protein synthesis

What is the main function of genes? The genes control the traits of an organism and the production of proteins in the organism's cells
Proteins help to determine what? Traits
Are proteins important in all cells? Why or why not? Yes, because cells need proteins to function- live, reproduce, repair and build tissues.
A _________ is a section of a DNA molecule that contains information code for the specific protein. Gene
How many pairs of nitrogen bases can be on a single gene on a chromosome? 100-1000000
What cells do not have a copy of your DNA? Mature red blood cells
DNA stands for what? Deoxyribonucleic Acid
When does DNA replication occur? During mitosis
Are 2 new daughter cells exactly like the mother cell? Yes
Continue this phrase: Both resulting daughter cells have: The same genetic information.
What happens during replication? The 2 sides of the molecule unwind and separte like a zipper unzipping.
What separates the nitrogen base by breaking down the hydrogen bond? Enzymes
What is a hydrogen bond? A bond between 2 matched nitrogen bases.
What are enzymes? Special proteins that help to regualte your cells activities and help break down substances.
What are nucleotides? Floating nitrogen bases in the nucleus.
What is a mutation? A change in the order of the of the bases in an organism's DNA.
What is Sickle Cell Anemia? A painful blood disorder where the blood cells are not shaped correctly.
What are repair enzymes? Patrollers who find mutations before they begin and "kill" them
If repair enzymes do not fix the mistake in a cell, it becomes permanent and is known as a what? Mutation
What can mutations be caused by besides random errors during DNA replication? Physical and Chemical changes.
What are mutagens? Mutations by physical and chemical changes.
What are examples of mutagens? X-ray machines, overexposure to UV sunlight, asbestos, and chemicals in cigarettes.
More than ______ people get skin cancer every year. 750,000
As the ozone layer decreases, the number of people with skin cancer a year may ______. Increase
The DNA molecule ____leave the nucleus. Cannot
What copies the DNA code? mRNA
What is RNA's nitrogen base and what does in share a bond with? Uracil with adenine.
What is a series of 3 nitrogen bases called? Codon
What is a gene? Made up of a glucose, nitrogen base, and phosphate molecule
What determines the type of protein that needs to be made by ribosomes? Order of nitrogen bases + gene
Once _____ has brought a _____ of DNA to the _______, ________will bring _______ _____ to help make the _____. mRNA copy ribosome tRNA amino acids proteins
Created by: rozeepozee9893