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Nutrition P&P

Potter and Perry 7th Edition Chapter 44

Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) define. Energy needed to maintain life-sustaining activities for a specific period of time.
Resting Energy Expenditure (REE) define. Measurement that accounts for BMR plus energy to digest meals & perform mild activity.
What are nutrients? Elements necessary for body processes & function.
Where do nutrients come from? Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins, minerals.
Nutrient density define. Proportion of essential nutrients such as fruits & vegetables, provide a large number of nutrients in relationship to kilocalories.
What is a kilocalorie (kcal)? Equivalent to 1000 cal, and is the amount of heat energy required to raise or lower one kilogram (1 kg) of pure liquid water by 1º C or 1º K. Cal and kcal are used interchangeable, but do not mean the same. Kcal = dietary calorie.
Carbohydrates Main source of energy in diet; each gram of produces 4 kcal.
Carbohydrates Main source of energy for the brain, skeletal muscles during exercise, erythrocyte/leukocyte production, and cell function of renal medulla.
Saccharides Carbohydrate units.
Simple Carbohydrates Monosaccharides & disaccharides; usually found in sugar.
Fiber Polysaccharide that can not be digested, adds bulk to fecal matter.
Protein Source of 4 kcal, necessary for synthesis of body tissue, maintenence, and repair.
Other things made of protein. Collagen, hormones, enzymes, immune cells, DNA/RNA.
Amino Acid Basic component of protein.
Essential/Indispensable amino acids Body cannot synthesize but must have provided in the diet.
Examples of essential amino acids Histidine, lysine, phenlyalanine.
Nonessential/Dispensable amino acids Those which the body can synthesize.
Exampless of nonessential amino acids Alanine, asparagine, glutamic acid.
Simple protein define and example. Contain ONLY amino acids or their derivatives; albumin and insulin.
Complex protein define and example. Combination of amino acids nonprotein substances; lipoproteins.
Complete protein define and examples. Contains all essential amino acids in sufficient quantity; Fish, chicken, soybean, turkey, and cheese.
Incomplete protein define and examples. Missing 1 or more of the 9 essential amino acids; Cereals, legumes, vegetables.
Complementary proteins define. Pairs of incomplete proteins that when combined supply the total amount of protein provided by complete protein sources.
Nitrogen Balance explain. Nitrogen is necessary for any muscular growth. If negative, muscle protein is used. If positive, muscle protein is spared and growth occurs.
Lipids Fats are the most caloric dense nutrient, provide 9 kcal composed of triglycerides and fatty acids.
Triglycerides Circulate in the blood & made up of the three fatty acids attached to a glycerol.
Fatty Acids Composed of chains of carbon & hydrogen atoms with an acid group on one end of the chain & a methyl group at the other.
Saturated Each carbon in the chain has two attached hydrogen atoms.
Unsaturated An unequal number of hydrogen atoms are attached & the carbon atoms attach to each other with a double bond.
Monounsaturated Fatty acids have one double bond
Polyunsaturated Fatty acids have two or more double carbon bonds.
Essential fatty acids. Linoleic acid, only one in humans. Lenolenic acid and arachidonic acid are manufactured when linoleic acid is present.
What makes up what percentage of body weight? 60-70%
What 2 locations is most of the water found in the body? Blood and muscle.
Vitamins Used as catalysts in biochemical reactions, found in raw, fresh vegetables/fruits.
Antioxidants Neutralize substances called free radicals including Beta-carotene, Vit A, C, E.
Fat-Soluble Vitamins (A,D,E, & K) Can be stored in the body; All except D are provided in diet, D is produced in body.
Hypervitaminosis Megadose (intentional or unintentional) of supplemental vitamins, usually occurs with fat-soluable b/c can build up to toxic amounts that are trapped in fat.
Water-Soluble Vitamins (C & B) Not stored in the body, all provided in the diet.
Minerals Inorganic elements essential to the body as catalysts in biochemical reactions.
Macrominerals Daily requirement is 100 mg or more
Trace Element When less than 100 mg is needed daily.
Enzymes Proteinlike substances that act as catalysts to speed up chemical reactions, usually has 1 specific function.
Enzyme activity depends on what function of the mouth? Mechanical breakdown that increases surface area for chemical action.
Which nerve stimulates the GI tract and increase motility? Vagas nerve (parasympathetic)
Dysphagia Difficulty swallowing.
Where is the cardiac sphincter and what causes it to relax? Above the stomach; pressure from bolus causes relaxation.
Where is the fundus located? Upper most portion of the stomach.
Stomach's chief cells secrete what? Pepsinogen.
Pyloric glands secrete what? Gastrin.
Parietal cells secrete what? HCl and intrinsic factor.
Chyme Liquefied, acidic mass of food.
Small intestine secrete what 2 hormones? Secretin and cholecystokinin (CCK)
Bile manufactured, function? Manufactured in the liver, stored in gallbladder, emulsifies fat to increase surface area.
Pancreatic secretions contain which 6 enzymes? Amylase, lipase, trypsin, elastase, chymotrypsin, and carboxypeptidase.
Epithelial cells of the villi secret? Sucrase, lactase, maltase, lipase, peptidase.
Digestion and absorption of nutrients mostly occur where? Small intestine.
Carbs, protein, minerals, and water-soluable vits absorbed? Small intestine>Processed in liver>released into portal vein circulation.
Fatty acid absorbed? Lacteal ducts in the microvilli>lymphatic circulatory system.
Electrolytes and minerals are absorbed, Vit K and B complex are formed where? Large intestine.
Metabolism All biochemical reactions within the cells of the body.
Anabolism Building of more complex biochemical substances by synthesis of nutrients.
Catabolism Breakdown of biochemical substances into smaller substances, occurs during negative nitrogen balance.
Body's major form of reseve energy? Fat stored in adipose tissue.
Major site of protein storage? Skeletal muscles.
What are the 2 types of cells that do not metabolize fatty acids? Red blood cells and neurons.
Ketones Oxidized fatty acids; energy in the absence of dietary carbohydrates (glucose).
Glycogen is stored where? Liver and muscle tissue.
Glycogenolysis Catabolism of glycogen into glucose, carbon dioxide & water.
Glycogenesis Anabolism of glucose into glycogen for storage.
Gluconeogenesis Catabolism of amino acids & glycerol into glucose for energy.
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) Acceptable range of amounts of vitamins and nutrients to avoid deficiencies or toxicities.
Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) Recommended amount of a nutrient that appears sufficient to maintain a body function for 50% of the population.
Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) Average needs of 98% of the population.
Adequate Intake (AI) Suggested intake for the individual based on observed estimates and is used when there is not enough evidence to set RDA.
Upper Intake Level (UL) Highest level tha tis likely poses no risk of adverse health events, not a recommended level of intake.
Daily Values Food labels were created by the Food & Drug Administration in response to the 1990 Nutrition Labeling & Education Act.
Anorexia define. Lack of appetite or ability to eat.
Anorexia Nervosa Refusal to maintain body wt.; intense fear of gaining wt.; disturbance in body wt., size, or shape; Females haven't had period in 3 + consecutive months.
Bulimia Nervosa Binge eating (reoccuring); Feel of lack of control over binge eating; self-induced vomitting; 2+ binge eatings/week for 3+ months.
Vegetarianism Consumption of diet consisting predominately of plant foods.
Anthropometry Measurement system of size & make up of body.
Body Mass Index (BMI) Measure wt.correct for height & serves as an alternative to traditional height-weight relationships.
Ideal Body Weight (IBW) Provides an estimate of what a person should weigh.
Enteral Nutrition (EN) Nutrients given via the GI tract.
Parenteral Nutrition (PN) Form of specialized nutrient support in which nutrients are provided intravenously.
Lipid Emulsions Provide supplemental kilocalories & prevent essential fatty acid deficiencies.
Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) Use of specific nutritional therapies to treat an illness, injury, or condition.
When feeding tubes are first positioned, verification is doen by: X-ray confirmation.
Parenteral nutrition is used when the client is: Experiencing a condition resulting in gastrointestinal dysfunction.
The bacteria that causes peptic ulcers is: Helicobacter pylori.
Inflammatory Bowel Disease include? Crohn's disease & idiopathic ulcerative colitis.
Nutritional therapy for hypertension includes: Kcal reduction to promote weight loss as appropriate, decreased sodium intake, & potassium-rich foods if potassium-wasting diuretics are part of the treatment.
Created by: Babble05