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Sleep P&P

Potter and Perry 7th Edition Chapter 42

Proper rest and sleep are as important to good health as? Good nutrition and adequate exercise.
Sleep define. Cyclical physiological process that alternates with longer periods of wakefulness.
Circadian rhythm is? Most familiar 24-hr day/night cycle.
Why are hospitals and acute care facilities detrimental to sleep? They do not adjust to individual sleep cycles.
How do body temps correlate to sleep cycles? Temp peaks in afternoon, gradually decreases, then drops sharply after falling asleep.
What happens to the body if sleep cycle is disrupted? Decrease appetite, Increase in anxiety, restlessness, irritability, and impaired judgment.
What equipment is used to monitor sleep cycles? EEG (cerebral cortex activity), EMG (muscle tone), EOG (Eye movements)
What is the major sleep center in the body? Hypothalamus.
What are hypocreatins (orexins) and where are they secreted? Hormones that promote wakefulness and REM sleep; Hypothalamus.
What hormones control sleep? Prostaglandin D2, L-tryptophan, and growth factors.
What is believed to control alertness and wakefulness? Cells located in the ascending reticular activating system (RAS) located in the upper brain stem.
What does the RAS receive that promotes wakefulness/alertness? Visual, auditory, pain, tactile sensory stimuli.
What chemicals are responsible for maintaining arousal? Catecholamines such as norepinephrine.
What hormone is responsible for sleep? Serotonin.
Where is serotonin secreted? Cells in the raphe nuclei sleep system in the pons and medulla.
Normal sleep involves how many phases? 2; Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) and REM.
How long is a regular sleep cycle? 90 mins.
How many stages of sleep occur during a 90 mins sleep cycle? 4.
What are the 4 stages of sleep cycle? Stage 1 and 2 (light sleep), Stage 3 and 4 (deep sleep), REM. REM is not a "stage" of sleep, it is classified as the period at the end of each cycle.
How many sleep cycles are completed each night during sleep? 4-5.
What is the flow of the stages of sleep? 1, 2, 3, 4, 3, 2, REM, 2, 3, 4...
What percentage of sleep is spent in the NREM stages? 75-80%
With each cycle completed, stages 3 and 4 and REM get longer or shorter? Longer
Newborns and children spend more time in which stages? 3 and 4 (deep sleep)
Which stages of sleep contribute to tissue restoration? NREM (1,2,3,4)
During NREM, do body functions increase or decrease? Decrease.
What biological functions decrease while sleeping? Heart rate, Resp, BP, Muscle tone.
Stages 3 and 4 are called deep sleep and what else? Slow-wave.
What is released during Stage 4 to repair and renew epithelial and specialized cells? Human growth hormone.
Protein synthesis also occurs during sleep, what is this used for? Repair and renewal of tissues: skin, bone marrow, gastric mucosa, brain.
The muscular system rests and BMR decrease resulting in what during sleep? Conservation of energy stores.
When is brain tissue and cognitive restoration? REM sleep.
What changes in the brain are related to REM sleep? Change in cerebral blood flow, increase cortical activity, increased O2 consumption, epinephrine release.
A loss in REM sleep results in? Confusion and suspicion.
When do dreams occur and when are they most vivid? Occur in NREM and REM; most vivid in REM.
Sleep-related breathing disorders are linked to increased? Nocturnal angina, increase heart rate, ECG changes high BP, and increase risk of heart disease and stroke.
Hypertension causes what? Early morning awakening and fatigue.
Hypothyroidism causes what? Decreased stage 4 sleep.
Hyperthyroidism causes what? Takes more time to fall asleep.
Primary Restless legs syndrome is classified as? Nervous system disorder.
Secondary RLS is associated with? Lower lvls of iron, pregnancy, and uremia.
Gastric acid secretion and stages of sleep are complimentary or conflicting? Conflicting.
What are the 3 sleep problems? Insomnia, Abnormal movements/sensations during sleep, Excessive daytime sleepiness.
How many categories of sleep disorders are there? 8
Hypersomnia is? Group of disorders that is not caused by disturbed circadian rhythms or nocturnal sleep.
Parasomnias are what? Undesirable behaviors that occur usually during sleep.
Polysomnogram involves which tests? EEG, EMG, and EOG to monitor sleep.
What is characteristic of insomnia? Difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakenings, or short sleep (non-restorative)
Insomnia occurs more in? Women, most common sleep disorder of women.
What causes transient insomnia? Situational stresses such as family, work, school, jet lag, illness, death in family.
What is sleep hygiene? Practices associated with sleep.
What is characteristic of sleep apnea? Lack of airflow through the nose and mouth for periods of 10 seconds or longer during sleep.
What are the 3 types of sleep apnea? Central, obstructive, and mixed. Most common is obstructive.
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) occurs when what happens? Muscles/structures of the upper airway relax during sleep and partially or completely block the airway.
What is the difference between apnea and hypopnea? Apnea is completely blocked w/ no air flow Hypopnea is partially blocked w/ partial air flow.
How does the body correct apnea when it happens? Each successive diaphragmatic movement becomes stronger until the obstruction is relieved.
What are the most common complaints of people with OSA? Excessive daytime sleepiness and fatigue.
Central Sleep Apnea (CSA) is what? Dysfunction in the brain's respiratory control center.
CSA is common in clients with? Brain stem injury, muscular dystrophy, and encephalitis.
Narcolepsy is a dysfunction of what? Mechanisms that regulate sleep and wake states.
Cataplexy is what? Sudden muscle weakness during intense emotions.
How long does it take a narcolepsy patient to reach REM? 15 mins.
What is sleep paralysis? Feeling of being unable to move or talk just before waking or falling asleep.
Sleep deprivation is a problem many experience with? Dyssomnia.
Parasomnias are more common in adults or children? Children.
What is the current position babies should be placed to sleep to avoid SIDS. Supine.
What are some common parasomnias? Somnambulism (sleep walking), Night terrors, nightmares, nocturnal enuresis (bed-wetting), body rocking, and bruxism (teeth-grinding)
Define rest. State of mental, physical, and spiritual relaxation that leaves them refreshed and rejuvenated.
Normal sleep requirements of age groups is on page... 1035 Not typing all of that.
Sleep obtained by US citizens has increase or decreased? Decreased 20% during past century.
Falling asleep while driving usually occurs? Between 2-5am.
In order to promote sleep, when should one exercise? 2 or more hours before sleep.
Certain sleep disorders are the result of what type of diet? Semistarvation.
Who can be asked about one's sleep patterns? Client, client's bed partners.
What is a brief method for assessing sleep quality? Visual analog scale or numeric scale of 0-10
How can a nurse get an idea of a client's sleep habits without having them participate in sleep study? Sleep-wake log.
Which age groups prefer softly lit rooms as opposed to total darkness? Infants and older adults.
How to prevent middle of the night bottle feedings for infants? Feed last bottle as late as possible and never give a bottle to them in the crib.
What is melatonin? Neurohormone produced in the brain that helps control circadian rhythms and promote sleep.
What are some drugs/herbal meds to help with sleep? Valerian, Kava, Chamomile, Passionflower, Lemonbalm, Lavender.
What should be monitored during sleep after surgery? Airway, resp rate, depth, and breath sounds.
What is the most effective therapy to reduce airway obstruction during sleep? Use of a nasal continuous positive airway pressure device (CPAP).
Created by: Babble05