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pharmacology. II

Basic Pharmacology for Nurses

Pharmacology deals with the study of drugs and their actions on living organisms.
Therapeutic Methods Drug Therapy, Diet Therapy, Physiotherapy, Psychological Therapy
Drugs are chemical substance that have an effect on living organisms.
Therapeutic Drugs often called medicine
pharmacokinetics is the study of the study of the mathematical relationship among the absorption, distribution, metablism, and excretion of medication
pharmacodynamics the study of druf interactions including the drug receptors and the series of events that culminates in a pharmacologic response
clinical research and stage the testing the new drug in humans take place.
receptors sites on the cells where chemical bonding of drugs occurs
agonist drugs that stimulates a response
antagonist attach to receptors but do NOT stimulate a response
partial antagonist drugs that interact with a receptor to stimulate a response and concurrently inhibit other responses
ADME the four stages of the drug processing: absorption, distribution, metaboliism, and excretion
percutaneous drug administration is done via inhalation, sublingual, or topical
parenteral im,iv, sub cu,
enteralra GI tract
Distribution the way the drugs are transported by the circulating body fluid
drug blood level measures the amount of drug present in the blood to determine if it is within the therapeutic range, below range is sub therapeutic or above range is toxic.
oral medication can not be given if vomitting, no gag reflex, difficulty swallowing, commatose
buccal site between the cheek and gums. cannot drink
sublingual under the toungue. cannot drink or eat while the drug is in place
meniscus liquids, suspensions, and elixirs; the line when you measure liquids in cup. lowest level
FDA U.S Food and Drug Administration. list the official name for the U.S.
United States Pharmacopeiia (USP)/ formulary (NF) ensures the quality of the medicines and other health care technologies. the pureness and potency of drugs are checked her
american Drug Index an index of all medicines available in the U.S. drugs are listed alphabetlically by generic name and brand name
American hospital Formulary Service, Drug Information contains monographs on virtually every drug available in the U>S
Martindale-the Complete Drug Reference published by pharmaceutical press and has information about drugs in used throuughout the world.
schedule I a high potential for abuse not curretly accepted for medical use in the US lack of accepted safety for use under medical supervision
schedule II high potential for abuse currently accepted medical use in the US an abuse potential that may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence
schedule III a high potential for abuse, but less so that drugs schedules I and II a currently accepted medical use in the united states an abuse potential that may lead to moderate or low physical dependence or high psychological dependence
schedule IV a low potentialfor abuse, compared with those in schedule III a currently accepted medical use in the US and abuse potential that may lead to limited physical or psychological dependence, compared with drugs in schedule III
schedule V a low potential for abuse, compared with those in schedule IV a currently accepted medical use in the U.S an abuse potential of limited physical or psychological dependence liability, compared with drugs in schedule IV. because abuse potental iis low, a
preclinical research and development stage phase of a new development begins with discovery, synthesis, and purification of the drug. testing in animals occur her
clinical research and development stage the testing in humans stage. is divided in 3 phases.
drug use in pregnancy Category A adequate, well-controlled studies in pregnant women have not shown an increased risk of fetal abnormallities. animal studies have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus; however, there are no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women.
Drug use in pregnancy Cat. B animal animal studies have revealede no evidence of harm to fetus, but adequate and well-controlled studies in prgnant women have failed to demostrate a risk tetus
Drug use in pregnancy Cat. C animal atudies have shown an adverse effect, and there are noadequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women
drug use in pregnancy Cat. D studies, adequate, well-controlled, or observational, in pregnant women have demostrated a risk to the fetus. however, the benefits of therapy may outweight the potential risk
drug use in pregnancy. Cat X studies, adequate, well-controlled, or observational, in animals or pregnant women have demostrated positive evidence of fetal abnormalities. the use of the product is contraindicated in women who are or may become pregnant
allergic reaction is also know hypersensitivity
idiosyncratic reaction occurs when something unusual or abnormal happens when a drug is first administered
carcinogenicity the ability of a drug to induce living cells to mutate and become and cancerous.
teratogen a drug that induces drug defects.
sinergistic effect the combined effect of two drugs is greater than the sum of the effect of each drug given alone.
antagonistic effect one drug interferes with the action of another
additive effect two drugs with similar actions are taken for a doubles effect
genetics is the study of how living organisms inherit the cheracteristics or traits of their ancestors, such as hair color, eye color, or skin pigmentation
Created by: joana88