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68WM6 Ph 2 Resp

Respiratory System

abnormal sounds superimposed on breath sounds Adventitious
collapse of alveoli, preventing the respiratory exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen Atelectasis
visual examination of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi using a rigid or flexible fiber optic bronchoscope Bronchoscopy
acute inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose and accessory sinuses, usually accompanied by edema of the mucus membranes and nasal discharge Coryza
short, discrete, interrupted crackling or bubbling sounds; most commonly heard upon inspiration Crackles
slightly bluish, gray, or dark purple discoloration of the skin resulting from the presence of abnormally reduced amounts of oxygenated hemoglobin in the blood Cyanosis
shortness of breath or difficulty in breathing; may be caused by disturbances in the lungs, certain heart conditions, and hemoglobin deficiency Dyspnea
obstruction of blood vessel by a foreign substance; blood clot, fat, or air Embolism
accumulation of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural space, as a result of an infection Empyema
hemorrhage of the nose; nosebleed Epistaxis
an increase in the severity of a disease or disorder, marked by an increase in signs and symptoms Exacerbation
caused by external factors Extrinsic
greater than normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood Hypercapnia
an abnormal condition of the respiratory system that occurs when the volume of air inhaled is not adequate for the metabolic needs of the body Hypoventilation
an inadequate, reduced tension of cellular oxygen Hypoxia
caused by internal factors Intrinsic
an abnormal condition in which a person must sit or stand in order to breathe comfortable or deeply Orthopnea
low pitched, grating or creaking lung sounds that occur when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respiration Pleural Friction Rub
collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity which causes the lung to collapse Pneumothorax
musical, high pitched, squeaking or whistle like sound caused by rapid movement of air through narrowed bronchioles Silibant Wheeze
low pitched, loud, coarse, snoring sound Sonorous Wheeze
pertaining to respiratory effort that is strenuous and struggling; creates a snoring sound Stertorous
an abnormal rapid rate of breathing Tachypnea
surgical perforation of the chest wall and pleural space with a needle for the aspiration of fluid Thoracentesis
power of microorganism to produce disease Virulent
Subjective data in a nursing assessment for a respiratory disorder should include shortness of breath, dyspnea with or without exertion, cough
Objective data in a nursing assessment for a respiratory disorder should include chest movement, expansion, signs of distress, nostrils flaring, accessory muscle use, retractions, orthopnea, adventitious lung sounds
signs and symptoms of a respiratory disorder include anxiety, decreased ability to concentrate, disorientation, fatique, vertigo, increased pulse
normal pH range on ABG 7.35 to 7.45
normal PaCO2 range on ABG 35 to 45
normal PaO2 range on ABG 80 to 100
normal HCO3 range on ABG 22 to 26
normal Sa02 range on ABG >92%
surgical diagnostic procedure used when a sample of lymph tissue from the chest is needed for biopsy mediastinoscopy
endoscopic visualization of the larynx only performed under local or general anesthesia laryngoscopy
endoscopic visualization of the larynx, tranchea, and bronchi bronchoscopy
what instructions should a patient be given before an xray? remove jewelry, wear hospital gown
what instructions should a patient be given before collection of a sputum sample? rinse mouth with water, inhale deeply three times, and cough forcefully and spit sample into sterile container
what is the purpose of patient education before a CT scan? to reduce patient anxiety
this diagnostic lab is performed on sputum or pleural fluid to detect the presence of abnormal or malignant cells cytology
this diagnostic procedure is used to determine the severity or progression of a respiratory disease pulmonary function test
what kind of syringe is used to obtain an ABG sample? heparinized
how large of a sample is needed for an ABG? 3 to 5 mL
what test should be performed before an ABG to determine ulnar circulation? Allen’s test
how long should pressure be held following collection of an ABG sample? 5 minutes
how should an ABG sample be transported to the lab? in ice water
what procedure should always be performed following a throacentesis? Chest xray
risk for what condition is increased if more than 1500mL of fluid are removed during thoracentesis? Pulmonary Edema
Symptoms of this chronic obstructive pulmonary disease usually appear in the late forties; etiology includes changes in the alveolar walls and capillaries leading to decreased pulmonary surface area and inflammation of the bronchi, bronchioles, and alveol emphysema
signs and symptoms of emphysema exertional dyspnea, sputum, use of accessory muscles, pursed lip breathing, barrel chest, wheezing, weight loss
diagnostic tests for emphysema PFT, ABG, chest xray, labs, CBC
medications used to treat emphysema bronchodilators, antibiotics, corticosteroids, diuretics, oxygen therapy, anti anxiety
should patients with COPD be encouraged to drink more or less fluid daily and why? more, to loosen and thin respiratory secretions
because of issues with exertional dyspnea, emphysema patients should rest 30 minutes before these daily activities meals
patient teaching for emphysema should focus on nutrition and smoking cessation
Is COPD reversible? not usually
what is the clinical definition of chronic bronchitis? recurrent productive cough for a minimum of three months for at least two years
etiology of chronic bronchitis includes… impaired cilia, hypersecretion of mucus, susceptibility to infection, chronic infections leading to scarring and airway obstruction
signs and symptoms of chronic bronchitis productive cough worse in the morning, dyspnea, cyanosis, right ventricle failure, polycythemia, cyanosis, dependent edema
diagnostic tests for chronic bronchitis CBC, ABG, Pulse Oximetry, PFT, Electrolytes
medications used to treat chronic bronchitis bronchodilators, mucolytics, antibiotics
asthma caused by external factors occurring in response to allergens such as pollens, dust spores, feathers, or animal dander, food, etc. extrinsic asthma
asthma stemming from internal causes that are not fully understood, often triggered by URI or emotional upsets intrinsic asthma
these factors can influence recurrence of asthma attacks mental and physical fatigue
this disease is characterized by increased tracheal and bronchial response to various stimuli asthma
acute asthma attacks are caused by the release of …. histamine
diagnostic tests for asthma ABG, PFT, chest xray, sputum culture, CBC, theophylline level
medications used in the management of asthma bronchodilators, corticosteroids, leukotriene inhibitors
medications used for acute asthma attack bronchodilators, corticosteroids, epinephrine, IV aminophylline, O2
this manifestation of asthma is fatal if not reversed status asthmaticus
a gradual irreversible process of chronic dilation of the bronchi the eventually destroys the elastic and muscular properties of the lung bronchiectasis
signs and symptoms of bronchiectasis dyspnea, weight loss, fever, cyanosis, finger clubbing, coughing, foul smelling sputum
medical management of bronchiectasis includes low flow O2, chest physiotherapy, hydration, mucolytics, bronchodilators, antibiotics
Ringing in ears tinnitus
nosebleed epistaxis
diagnostic tests to consider in relation to epistaxis HGB, HCT, Coag panel, Rhinoscopy
treatments for epistaxis packing with gauze saturated with epi, cautery, ice, direct pressure
causes of deviated septum injuries, infections, allergies, dyspnea
diagnostic procedures to confirm deviated septum xray, direct observation
treatment for deviated septum surgery, meds to reduce obstruction
following nasal surgery what should the patient be instructed to avoid nose blowing, coughing vigorously, valsalvas
common complaints associated with a diagnosis of allergic rhinitis sneezing, pruritis, congestion, lacrimation, edema, phontophobia, blurred vision
exam findings associated with allergic rhinitis edema, PND, excessive secretions
diagnostic procedures for allergic rhinitis skin test, serum radioallergosorbent test
treatment for allergic rhinitis antihistamines, decongestants
uses for antihistamines allergies, motion sickness, insomnia, reactions, cough
side effects of antihistamines include constipation, dry eyes and mouth, blurred vision, sedation
what are some systemic antihistamines? azatadine, brompheniramine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, loratadine
antihistamines should be administered how long before exposure to an allergen? 45 to 60 minutes
what are some risks with antihistamines? increase risk of CNS depression, increase the action of anticholinergics, MAOI’s increase action and slow metabolism of antihistamines
what is the mechanism of action of decongestants? they are arteriole vasoconstrictors
what are decongestants used for? to decrease production of respiratory secretions
what are some possible side effects of decongestants? hypertension, dizziness, sedation, headache, tinnitus, thickened secretions, tachycardia, urinary retention
what are the two most common administration routes for decongestants? nasal and oral
what are two nasal decongestants? flonase, afrin
what are two oral decongestants? phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine
what is an important point of patient education with decongestants? don’t use more than three days
what are some common symptoms of laryngeal cancer? hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, “lump in throat”
what are some diagnostic exams for laryngeal cancer? visual exam, CBC, laryngoscopy, biopsy
what are some treatments for laryngeal cancer? radiation, surgery
what is one area of ADL’s that can be severely affected by laryngeal cancer? eating
what are common complaints associated with rhinitis? cough, watery nasal drainage, sore throat
what are some diagnostic procedures appropriate for rhinitis? visual exam, cultures
what medications are commonly used to treat rhinitis? analgesics, antipyretics, cough suppressants, antibiotics
what are some common complaints with pharyngitis? sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, dry cough
what are some diagnostic procedures appropriate for pharyngitis? visual exam, culture
what medications are commonly used to treat pharyngitis? antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretics
what are some common complaints with adenoiditis? sore throat, dysphagia, fever, malaise, noisy breathing
what are some diagnostic procedures appropriate for adenoiditis? culture, visual exam(patchy tonsilar exudates)
what are some common treatments for adenoiditis? antibiotics, analgesics, surgery
what are some common complaints with laryngitis? hoarseness, scratchy throat, persistant cough
what are some diagnostic procedures appropriate for laryngitis? visual exam, laryngoscopy
what are some common treatments for laryngitis? antibiotics, palliative medications
what are some common complaints in sinusitis? headache, sinus pain, tenderness, pressure, and prurulent discharge
what are some diagnostic procedures appropriate for sinusitis? xray, transillumination
what are some common treatments for sinusitis? surgery, antibiotics, analgesics, antihistamines, vasoconstrictors, warm moist heat
what are some common complaints in tonsilitis? sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, enlarged tonsils with prurulent discharge
what is the most important diagnostic procedure to consider in tonsillitis? culture (especially strep)
what are some common treatments for tonsilitis? surgery, antibiotics, analgesics, antipyretics
what are some common complaints in peritonsilar abcess? pain and difficulty swallowing, fever, malaise, ear pain, *****DIFFICULTY TALKING*****
what are some diagnostic tests appropriate for peritonsilar abcess visual exam, culture
what are the treatments for peritonsilar abcess? surgery, antibiotics
what are some common complaints with bronchitis? productive cough, low grade fever, ****rhonchi and wheezes****, dyspnea, chest pain, headache
what are some diagnostic tests appropriate for bronchitis? xray, sputum culture
what are the treatments for bronchitis? bronchodilators, andtibiotics, cough suppressants, antipyretics
what are some common complaints in legionanaires’ disease? high fever, headache, nonproductive cough, diarrhea, malaise
what are some signs and sypmtoms of advancing legionnaires’ disease? tachypnea, crackles and wheezing, shock, hematuria and renal failure
what are some diagnostic tests appropriate for legionnaires’ disease? cultures, xray
what are the treatments for legionairres’ disease? antibiotics, rifampin, anatipyretics, vasopressors and inotropes
what type of environment does legionnaires’ usually live in? moist (air conditioners, hot tubs, steam rooms)
what is the most lethal type of anthrax? inhalational
what are the three types of anthrax? cutaneous, gastrointestinal, inhalation
what are the treatments for anthrax? antibiotics (ciprofloxacin); previous vaccination increases survival rate
through what route is tuberculosis transmitted? inhalation
a positive PPD with negative chest xray indicates what? inactive tuberculosis infection
what is a common factor in the conversion from inactive to active TB infection? immunosuppression
what type of room should a patient with TB be in? negative pressure
what are the treatments for TB? isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, rifapentine
what is an important point of patient education for rifambin? turns body fluids red
what common substance has a known drug interaction with isoniazid? alcohol
what are some common causes of pneumonia? bacteria, aspiration, viral, fungal chemical
what are diagnostic tests appropriate for pneumonia? cultures, xray, cbc, pft, abg
what are some treatments for pneumonia? antibiotics, O2, analgesics, antipyretics, expectorants, bronchodilators, physiotherapy, humidification
what are some factors that make older adults more susceptible to pneumonia? drier mucous membranes, kyphosis, muscle weakness, reduced airway elasticity, inactivity, immobility
what is the action of an antitussive? suppresses cough reflex
what is the action of an expectorant? reduces viscosity of respiratory secretions
inflammation of visceral and parietal pleura pleurisy
what are some symptoms of pleurisy? pain on inspiration, fever, dry cough, dyspnea
what are some diagnostic tests appropriate for pleurisy? xray, auscultation(pleural friction rub)
Empyema is another word for pleural effusion
how is pleural effusion treated? thoracentesis, chest tube
collapse of lung tissue atelectasis
what are some causes of atelectasis? shallow breathing, copious secretions, aspiration, hypoventilation, tumors
what are some diagnostic tests for atelectasis? xray, ABG, Bronchoscopy
what are some treatments for atalectasis? chest tube, deep breathing and coughing, intubation
edema of respiratory mucosa combined with excessive mucous production causing chronic airway obstruction asthma
drugs that produce bronchodilation by mimicking the effects of the sympathetic nervous system adrenergics
what are some commonly used bronchodilators? albuterol, salmeterol, terbutaline
drugs that reduce symptoms of asthma by reducing inflammation in the airways corticosteriods
beclomethasone, flunilolide, and triamcinolone are all examples of corticosteroids
these two antiasthmatic classes reduce the release of substances that can lead to bronchospasm leukotriene receptor antagonists and mast cell stabilizers
common side effects of antiasthmatics tremors, anxiety, throat irritation
when administering both a sympathomimetic and corticosteroid inhaler, what is the proper sequence? sypathomimetic (bronchodilator) first, then wait five minutes and administer corticosteroid
what is the minimum waiting time between aerosol inhaler administrations? 1 minute
you should wait three to five minutes between administrations of these two inhaled medications isoproternol and epinephrine
you should wait at least ten minutes after the administration of this inhaler before giving another metaproternol
this class of antiasthmatic is commonly used as a daily therapy for long term asthma management leukotriene antagonists
what are some examples of adrenergic bronchodilators? albuterol, epinephrine, salmeterol, terbutaline
what time of day should once daily doses of xanthines be administered? morning
air or gas in the pleural space, causing the lung to collapse pneumothorax
buildup of air in the pleural space, causing interference with the ability of the heart and lungs to fill tension pneumothorax
signs and symptoms of pneumothorax decreased or absent breath sounds, abnormal chest movement
diagnostic tests appropriate for pneumothorax xray, abg
most common type of lung cancer non
accumulation of serous fluid in interstitial lung tissue and alveoli pulmonary edema
hallmark symptom of pulmonary edema pink, frothy sputum
non cardiogenic pulmonary edema ARDS
flow setting for nasal cannula in a COPD patient 2 to 3 LPM
Created by: ewoff85