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Nutrition Ch 8

Energy Balance and Body Composition

adaptive thermogenesis adjustments in energy expenditure related to changes in environment such as extreme cold and to physiological events such as overfeeding, trauma, and changes in hormone status.
appetite the integrated response to the sight, smell, thought, or taste of food that initiates or delays eating.
basal metabolic rate the rate of energy use for metabolism under specified conditions: It is usually expressed as kcalories per kilogram body weight per hour.
basal metabolism the energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest.
body composition the proportions of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissue that make up a person’s total body weight.
body mass index an index of a person’s weight in relation to height; determined by dividing the weight (in kilograms) by the square of the height (in meters).
bomb calorimeter an instrument that measures the heat energy released when foods are burned, thus providing an estimate of the potential energy of the foods.
central obesity excess fat around the trunk of the body; also called abdominal fat or upper-body fat.
diet-induced thermogenesis the sum of the TEF and any increase in the metabolic rate due to overeating.
hunger the painful sensation caused by a lack of food that initiates food-seeking behavior.
hypothalamus a brain center that controls activities such as maintenance of water balance, regulation of body temperature, and control of appetite.
inflammation an immunological response to cellular injury characterized by an increase in white blood cells.
insulin resistance the condition in which a normal amount of insulin produces a subnormal effect in muscle, adipose, and liver cells, resulting in an elevated fasting glucose; a metabolic consequence of obesity that precedes type 2 diabetes.
intra-abdominal fat fat stored within the abdominal cavity in association with the internal abdominal organs, as opposed to the fat stored directly under the skin (subcutaneous fat).
lean body mass the body minus its fat content.
neuropeptide Y a chemical produced in the brain that stimulates appetite, diminishes energy expenditure, and increases fat storage.
obese overweight with adverse health effects; BMI 30 or higher.
overweight body weight above some standard of acceptable weight that is usually defined in relation to height (such as BMI); BMI 25 to 29.9.
resting metabolic rate similar to the basal metabolic rate (BMR), a measure of the energy use of a person at rest in a comfortable setting, but with less stringent criteria for recent food intake and physical activity.
satiating having the power to suppress hunger and inhibit eating.
satiation the feeling of satisfaction and fullness that occurs during a meal and halts eating.
satiety the feeling of fullness and satisfaction that occurs after a meal and inhibits eating until the next meal.
thermic effect of food an estimation of the energy required to process food (digest, absorb, transport, metabolize, and store ingested nutrients); also called the specific dynamic effect (SDE) of food or the specific dynamic activity (SDA) of food.
thermogenesis the generation of heat; used in physiology and nutrition studies as an index of how much energy the body is expending.
underweight body weight below some standard of acceptable weight that is usually defined in relation to height (such as BMI); BMI below 18.5.
waist circumference an anthropometric measurement used to assess a person’s abdominal fat.
Created by: daveborsemt