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what are other loops besides furosemide? torsemide, ethacrynic acid (non sulfa), bumetanide
Other K+ sparing diuretics beside spironolactone? amiloride, triamterene [these don't have anti-androgen affects]
ca wasting diuretics? ca sparing? ca wasting= loops (high risk of stones). ca sparing= thiazides
chlorthalidone & metolazone are ______ diuretics thiazides
how many bacteria in urine are needed for pyelonephritis diagnosis? 10^5 bacteria/ml
pyelonephritis treatment? cipro (oral)....if no improvement in 72h, use USG to look for cause, give IV amp/gent
How does bowel dz cause Ca Oxalate stones? increased fat in gut binds the calcium. this leaves oxalate unbound, so it is reabsorbed.
Rx of Ca stones? Hydration (not low Ca diet...in fact you can give increased Ca!)
How do you alkalanize urine for uric acid stone Rx? NaHCO3 or NaCitrate
staghorn calculi = ? UTI stone (proteus/klebsiella), give cipro
Diagnostic test for cystinuria stones cyanide nitroprusside test
1-2 cysts in kidney? normal (more can be ADPKD)
Why are TTCs given in ADPKD? they are vasopressin antagonists
unilateral varicocele (veins in scrotum) should alert you for suspicion of.... RCC
What cancers cause raised EPO RCC and HCC
AIN is a precursor to _____ ATN or papillary necrosis (ATN=tubular necrosis, papillary= parenchymal necrosis) (duh, inflammation precedes necrosis)
AIN is associated with raised levels of what blood cell eosinophils (one of the A's from NAAACP)
classic 4 features of AIN fever, raised eosinophils, rash, raised Cr
AIN causes? drugs (NSAIDS, thiazides, phenytoin, penicillins, allopurinal, Cd/Pb)
Created by: jsad