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A & P chapter 17 & 1

Main organs of digestive system mouth; pharynx; esophagus; stomach; small intestine; large intestine; rectum; anal canal
Accessory organs teeth; tongue; salivary glands; liver; gallbladder; pancreas; appendix
Food processing digestion; absorption; metabolism
Digestion breakdown of food material either mechanically (e.g. chewing) or chemically (e.g. action by enzymes)
Absorption passage of food substance from digestive organs into blood
Metabolism complex process by which food is used inside the cell
Two typs of metabolism anabolism and catabolism
Anabolism process inside the cells where simple compounds are used to make more complex molecules (going from small to large-building up)
Catabolism breakdown of complex compounds into simpler compunds (going from large to small-breaking down)
Assimilation process by which substances are taken up by a cell-note NOT a form of metabolism
Mouth where digestion begins
Uvula cone-shaped structure that hangs down from soft palate that prevents food and liquid from entering the nasal cavities when a person swallows
Structures of a tooth crown (portion exposed and visible in the mouth); neck (portion surrounded by the gum tissue); root (portion that fits into the jaw socket)
Enamel hardest material made by the body and forms the outer covering of the shell of the tooth in the crown
Cementum covers the shell of the tooth in the neck and the root
Dentin substance that makes up most of the shell of the tooth
Salivary glands accessory digestive organs that begin chemical digestion of carbohydrates in the mouth
Three pairs of salivary glands accessory digestive organs that begin chemical digestion of carabohydrates in the mouth
Three pairs of salivary glands parotid; submandibular; sublingual
Salivary amylase digestive enzyme the begins the chemical digestion of carbohydrates in the mouth
Layers of the walls of the organs in the digestive system Mucosa, Submucosa, Muscularis, Serosa
Mucosa inner layer
Submucosa just below the mucosa that contains the blood vessels and nerves
Muscularis layer that is responsible for peristalsis
Serosa outer layer that is also the visceral peritoneum
Three pars of the stomach fundus, body, pylorus
Fundus top part of the stomach that prevents the diaphragm from moving downward and may cause a person to have trouble taking a deep breath when the stomach is full
number of layers of muscle in the stomach wall 3
Rugae folds in the stomach
gastritis stomach inflammation
Nausea feeling that one may vomit
Emesis vomiting
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) heartburn or acid indigestion that results from stomach acid back-flowing into the esophagus
Ulcer crater like destruction of the wall of the digestive lining, usually in the stomach
Three sections of the small intestine Duodenum-->Jejunum-->Ileum (don't jump in)
Unique feature of small intestine 3 structures that increase surface area for absorption--villi, microvilli, plicae
Lacteals specialized lymphatic capillaries in the samll intestine that absorb large fat molecules
Gallbladder storage for bile
Cystic duct duct that drains bile from the gallbladder
Cholecystokinin enzyme that causes the contraction of the gallbladder
Pancrease enocrine and exocrine gland that produces enzymes that help digest all three food substances (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins); also produces insulin (decdreases blood glucose) and glucogons (increases blood glucose)
Insulin hormone that reverses hyperglycemia
Hyperglycemia increased blood glucose
Divisions of the larage intestine(colon): cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, rectum, anus
Hepatic flexure area of larage intestine that connects ascending colon and transverse colon
Splenic flezure area of large intestine that connects transverse and desedending colon
Peritoneum large sheet of serious membrane that lines the abdominal cavity
Extensions of the peritoneum mesentery and omentum
Chemical digestion break up of food molecules into compounds having smaller molecules by action of enzymes
mechanical digestion break up of food into smaller particles
Carbohydrate digestion begins in mouth
Protein digestion begins in stomACH
Fat digestion begins in small intestine
Functions of the liver produces plasma proteins; produces bile for mechanical digestion of fat; helps maintain proper blood glucose level
Fat digestion by bile MECHSNICAL digestion (not chemical) because bile emulsifies (breaks apart) the big fat globules into smaller fat molecules that can be chemically acted up
Cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
Hepatitis inflammation of the liver
Cirrhosis degeneration of the liver tissue in which normal liver tissues if replaces by fibrous and fatty tissue
Pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
Diverticula abnormal out-pouchings from the colon
Diverticulitis inflammation of the diverticula
Colitis inflammation of the large intestine
Enteritis inflammation of the small intestine
Appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
Peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
Ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in teh peritoneal space
Kwashiorkor condition when diet is sufficient in calories but deficient in protein
Marasmus starvation, or diet insufficient in calories
Vitamins organic molecule needed in small quantities to help enzymes operate effectively or to otherwise regulate metabolism in the body=two types water soluble and non-water soluble
Water soluble vitamins unable to be stored C and B
Fat-soluble vitamins can be stored by body-A, D, E, and K
Thermoregulation homeostasis of body temperature
forms of heat loss radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation
Ways body conserves or generates heat reducting blood flow to the skin; shivering; increasing the level of metabolism-stimulating hormone
Fever rise in body temperature that is used to help the immune systems fight a pathogen.
Created by: carladanette